ECGs - 3 Lead tests

It is normal in ECG testing when confronted by large numbers of test permutations to simplify the approach on the assumption that one test is representative. For example, an input impedance test on V1 and V4 can reasonably be considered representative of tests on the other chest leads. And tests with the 10 lead cable is representative of tests with a 5 lead cable. 

One easy mistake though is to extend this to patient monitors that have the option to attach a 3 Lead cable.

In systems with 4, 5 or 10 electrodes, one of the electrodes is used as the "right leg drive", which is used for noise cancellation, both for mains and dc offsets. This function helps the system cope with dc offsets, mains noise (CMRR) and input impedance. 

In systems with 3 leads, there are two possible approaches: one is forget about noise cancellation and hope for the best. Another, more common is to use the displayed lead to decide which two leads are used for measurement, and have the other lead switch to the noise cancellation function. For example, if the normal default Lead II is shown on the display, electrode LA is not used (Lead II = LL - RA) , freeing up this lead for use as noise cancellation. 

You can check for the difference between these approaches by applying a dc offset (e.g. 300mV) to one of the electrodes, and then switching between Lead I, II and III and observing the baseline. If baseline remains constant, it is likely the manufacturer has used the "hope for the best" approach. If the baseline shows a transient when switching the lead displayed (e.g. Lead I to Lead II), it means the hardware circuit is switching the lead with the noise cancellation, and the high pass filter needs time to settle down. 

Either way, system with 3 lead options should be retested. The recommended test in IEC 60601-2-27 include: 

  • sensitivity
  • input impedance
  • noise
  • channel crosstalk
  • CMRR
  • pacemaker pulse (spot check)

For the remaining tests, it seems reasonable that tests on 10 lead configuration is representative. 

In reality though it is really up to the designer to know (and inform) about which tests can be considered representative. This is one of the weak points in IEC 60601 series in that there is no clear point of analysis for representative accessories and options, something which is discussed in another MEDTEQ article on accessories

MDD Essential Requirements

The following material is copied from the original MEDTEQ website, which was developed around 2009. It is noted that the proposed update to the European MDD addresses some of the points raised in this article. 

In Europe, manufacturers working under the Medical Device Directive (MDD) are given a legal "presumption of conformity" with essential requirements if they apply harmonized standards as published in the Official Journal. This feature is most often quoted as simply meaning that standards are voluntary; most people assume that essential requirements have the highest priority and must anyhow be fulfilled, in this context standards are just one way to show compliance.

Most people also assume the "presumption of conformity" only applies if the standard actually addresses the essential requirement; in other words, the presumption is not absolute. If standards don't cover an essential requirement or only provide a partial solution, the manufacturer is still obliged to provide additional solutions to ensure compliance with essential requirements.

While reasonable, this expectation is not actually supported by the directive. If the presumption was not absolute, we would need a mechanism, defined in the directive, to determine when the presumption is or is not effective. The expected mechanism would require each essential requirement to be analyzed and a formal decision made as to whether standards provide a complete solution, and if not, record the additional details necessary to provide that complete solution. The analysis would inevitably involve a characterization of the essential requirement for the individual device.

Consider for example, the application of essential requirement No. 10.1 (measurement functions) for a diagnostic ultrasound. To determine compliance we would need to compile the following information: 

  • what measurement function(s) is/are there?
  • for each measurement function, what is/are the intended purpose(s)?
  • for each measurement function, what is an appropriate accuracy for the intended purpose(s)?
  • for each measurement function, what is an appropriate test method for accuracy in design?
  • for each measurement function, what is an appropriate test method for accuracy in production?
  • for each measurement function, do the results of those test methods confirm the accuracy in design and production are suitable for the intended purpose(s)?

With this kind of detailed analysis, we can determine if standards genuinely provide a complete solution to the essential requirement, and also identify other solutions if the standards are incomplete. Given the huge range of medical devices, we know that standards struggle to provide a complete solution, and even those few that do address an essential requirement often provide only partial technical solutions which need to be supplemented with manufacturer specifications covering both design and production. Thus this analysis stage is expected to be extremely important for medical devices, and we can expect that the directive will specify exactly how to perform this analysis and what records must be maintained.

But when we look in the MDD to find what documentation must be kept (Annexes II ~ VII), we find surprisingly that there is no general requirement to document how essential requirements are fulfilled. Rather, each Annex says it is only if the manufacturer does not apply a harmonized standard that there is an obligation to document the solutions for essential requirements. This result is reinforced by Article 5, which says that member states must presume compliance with essential requirements if harmonized standards are applied. If these standards are inadequate, member states should take action to create standards, but there is no action required for the manufacturer.

Notified bodies have tried to fill this gap by insisting on an "essential requirements checklist". This checklist has now been formalized in the standard ISO/TR 16142. However, the checklist is really just a method of identifying which standards have been applied, and does not provide the analysis given above, nor record any formal decision as to whether a standard provides a complete "presumption of conformity", and if not, record the additional details necessary to provide a complete solution.  

The application of EN ISO 13485 and EN ISO 14971 were perhaps intended help to fill the gap; but there is a couple of legal problems: first is that neither of these standards, nor any management system standard actually meet the definition of a "harmonized standard" under the MDD. In principle, a harmonized standard is one that provides a complete technical solution (objective test criteria and test method), and should apply to the product, not the manufacturer (see Directive 98/34/EC, formerly 83/189/EEC).

More importantly, these standards have a key weak point: it is possible to argue under both ISO 13485 and ISO 14971 that analysis of essential requirements analysis should be performed, but there is no requirement for this analysis to be documented. Both standards limit the records to the results of the analysis, in particular ISO 14971 requires only the results of risk analysis to be recorded, not the technical analysis used to arrive at those results. While there are good reasons for this, it means that manufacturers can formally comply with these standards without ever actually documenting how essential requirements are met.

Independent observers would be somewhat bemused to find that there is no formal mechanism in the directive which forces manufacturers to document responses to important and difficult questions, such as:

  • are low cost oscillometric based NIBPs suitable for home use with high blood pressure patients?
  • are syringes with their highly variable stop/start action (stiction) suitable for use with infusion pumps when delivering critical drugs? 
  • is the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound suitable to make clinical decisions for cesarean procedures?
  • can high powered hearing aids actually further damage hearing?

For each of the examples above, clinical literature exists showing they are real problems, yet it is rare to find these topics discussed in any detail in a manufacturer's technical file, quality system or risk management documentation, nor any formal conclusion as to whether the related essential requirement is met. The absence of such documentation is entirely in compliance with the law.

The reason for the apparent weakness in the directive can be found in the history behind the MDD. The original "new approach directives", first developed in the early 1980's were built on the assumption that published technical standards alone can reasonably assure compliance with the essential requirements, through the use of objective test methods and criteria (see 85/C 136/01 and 83/189/EEC). This is called the "general reference to standards" and requires that the standards provide " ... a guarantee of quality with regard to the essential requirements". The "general reference to standards" also says it should not be necessary to refer to "manufacturing specifications" in order to determine compliance, in other words, standards alone should provide the complete solution.

With this guarantee in place, an absolute presumption of conformity is reasonable. Manufacturers can be given a choice of either (a) applying the standard(s) and ignoring essential requirements, or (b) ignoring the standard(s) and applying essential requirements. You don't have to do both, i.e. apply standards and essential requirements. In general, essential requirements are intended to guide the standards writers, and only rarely need to be considered by those manufacturers that choose to ignore requirements in standards.  

For directives such as the LVD (low voltage), this worked well, as the standards could reasonably ensure compliance. But for other directives like the MDD, the range of devices and safety issues makes it impossible to develop comprehensive technical standards. As stated in 85/C 136/01:

"... in all areas in which the essential requirements in the public interest are such that a large number of manufacturing specifications have to be included if the public authorities are to keep intact their responsibility for protection of their citizens, the conditions for the "general reference to standards" approach are not fulfilled as this approach would have little sense"

Despite this problem, the EU went ahead and used the new approach framework for the MDD, as published in 1993. As the framework (Articles and Annexes) of CE marking directives was fixed based on Commission Decision EC COM(89) 209, the text related to the presumption of conformity and required documentation was adopted almost word for word. Thus, we can see in Annexes II ~ VII that manufacturers only need to refer to essential requirements if harmonized standards are not applied; in Article 5 the presumption of conformity is unconditional; and if there is doubt about standards assuring compliance then action is required by member states and not by manufacturers. While EC COM(89) 209 has now been updated twice (currently DECISION No 768/2008/EC), these parts of the MDD have not been yet updated to reflect the most recent framework.

So while competent authorities, notified bodies and even manufacturers might reasonably assume that the presumption of conformity is not absolute, the law doesn't support this. Moreover, the current informal approach, based on the essential requirement checklist, ISO/TR 16142, ISO 13485 and ISO 14971 also fails to effectively force manufacturers to look at each essential requirement in detail.

An interesting aside here is that the UK "transposition" of the MDD into national law includes a qualification that national standards provide a presumption of conformity with an essential requirement, "unless there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that it does not comply with that requirement". A slight problem, however, is that the UK is not allowed to do this: European law requires the local transposition to be effectively the same as the MDD, otherwise the whole concept of the common market and CE marking falls down. A secondary problem is that the UK law does not give any implementation details, such as who is authorized to decide, when such decision are required and what records are required. That the UK quietly added this modification to the MDD, despite being obviously illegal, clearly indicates the presumption of conformity is weak when applied to medical devices.   

So, is EU law at fault? Does it need to be amended to force manufacturers to analyze each essential requirement through a process of characterization, scientifically and objectively showing how the requirement is met, irrespective of standards?

Perhaps, but some caution is recommended. We need to keep in mind that CE marking may really just provide "clearance for sale", a function which needs to balance free flow of goods against risks, and which should wherever possible be based on legal certainty and objective technical specifications. Regardless of compliance with the directive, manufacturers are still liable for injury under the Product Liability Directive, which provides back up and incentive at least for serious and detectable issues. Competition also provides incentive in many other areas which are highly visible to the user, such as image quality in a diagnostic ultrasound.

Competition of course also has a darker side: pressure to reduce price and speed up market access. But, the reality is that manufacturers live in a competitive world. Like it or not, competition is a strong force and is a key reason why some of the difficult issues remain undocumented. Most manufacturers when questioned know well about these issues, but feel action is not required while the competition also takes no action. Even if we did force manufacturers to analyse essential requirements systematically, complex situations allow in bias, and the bias would tend towards keeping the status quo - it would take a lot of effort by notified bodies and regulators to detect and counter such bias working directly with each manufacturer.

In other words, forcing the analysis on manufacturers may not make much difference, and just add to compliance costs.

So, the answer here seems to be improving technical standards, forcing all manufacturers on to a "common playing field". In a round about way, Article 5 of the directive is perhaps on the best path: rather than expecting too much from manufacturers, member states should focus on creating standards that provide specific solutions (test methods and criteria) for individual medical devices.

For this to work, a critical point here is that standards committees need to take  Directive 98/34/EC seriously, creating standards that provide a complete, objective technical solutions for the product, rather than more management system standards without any specific technical details.

While we can never hope to address all safety issues in technical standards given the wide range of medical devices, it may be possible for member states to focus their efforts to those areas where product liability and competition are not effective at addressing known issues. In other words, it is not necessary for a standard to try and cover everything, just those areas which manufacturers are known to be weak.    

The main point is, the next time someone wants to discuss whether a standard provides a "presumption of conformity", make sure they have a cup of coffee ready, as the explanation will take a little time.

MDD - Retrospective application of harmonized standards: an investigation

Originally posted in October 2011. Due to the transfer, links to footnotes no longer operate. 

[PDF Version]

While significant discussion continues around the content of EN 60601-1:2006 (IEC 60601-1:2005), it is generally understood that in Europe as of June 1, 2012[1], the previous edition will be withdrawn, leaving only the new edition to provide the legal “presumption of conformity” against essential requirements.

Notified Bodies have indicated that this situation is in effect retrospective: all older designs that are still being sold will have to be re-verified against the new standard. This is based on the interpretation that the “presumption of conformity” only exists at a point in time when each individual device is placed on the market. Thus, in order for manufacturers to maintain compliance, they must continuously update the design taking into account current harmonized standards.

Although standards are voluntary, it is still expected that manufacturers evaluate compliance on a clause by clause basis. This ensures the manufacturer is aware of specific non-conformities, and can then choose to redesign or provide an appropriate justification as to why alternate solutions still meet the essential requirements. Thus the voluntary nature of harmonized standards has little impact on the amount of work associated with updates in standards, and in particular, work associated with retrospective application to existing designs.

Despite the apparent unity in Notified Bodies on this interpretation, the MDD does contain text that calls this interpretation into question. Moreover, the implications of broad retrospective application may not have been fully considered by Notified Bodies.

The preliminary "whereas" section of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) includes the following paragraph:

“Whereas the essential requirements and other requirements set out in the Annexes to this Directive, including any reference to ‘minimizing’ or ‘reducing’ risk must be interpreted and applied in such a way as to take account of technology and practice existing at the time of design and of technical and economical considerations compatible with a high level of protection of health and safety;”

Later, in a paragraph associated with harmonized standards, this is repeated again:

"… essential requirements should be applied with discretion to take account of the technological level existing at the time of design and of technical and economic considerations compatible with a high level of protection of health and safety"

These statements appear to indicate that the presumption of conformity may exist at the time of design, rather than the time of placing on the market. If so, this would remove the retrospective nature of standards, and conflict with the advice of Notified Bodies. While the “high level of protection” part is open to interpretation, it appears that the intention was to say that essential requirements, standards and risk should be considered to apply at the time of design, unless there are some serious concerns. For example, if incidents in the market led to changes in standards or state of the art, such changes could be considered reasonable even for old designs.

Unfortunately, this “time of design” statement lacks further legal support. In the core part of the directive (articles, annexes) the phrase is not repeated. It also appears that the “whereas” section has not been transposed into national law (UK law, for example, does not use the phrase). The forward of EN ISO 14971 does repeat the above statement that "risk" must be assessed “at the time of design”, and this is also clarified in again in Annex D.4 in the same standard. But since these references are hidden away from the normative text, again they are often overlooked. So if the authors of the MDD really did intend the presumption of conformity to apply at the "time of design", there is considerable room for the EU to improve on implementation to provide greater legal certainty.

So, we are left with the task of finding out if retrospective application is feasible. An investigation finds that there are three key areas: the first looks at the unusually large number of standards that apply to medical devices; the second considers the case of “brand new” standards (without any transition period), and the third is the impact of requirements that apply to the manufacturer, as opposed to the device.  

Notified bodies have tended to highlight the retrospective aspect on high profile product standards undergoing transition, such as EN 60601-1:2006. But they have been very weak in enforcing the retrospective rule for all harmonized standards.

This is not a reflection of poor quality work by Notified Bodies, but rather the sheer impracticality of the task. While other directives may have more standards, the MDD is perhaps unique in the large number of standards that can apply to a single "product". Under the Low Voltage Directive, for example, two to three standards would typically apply to an electrical appliance such as a toaster or washing machine, keeping retrospective application in the realm of feasibility. Other high profile directives don't use the phrase “at the time of design” .

In contrast, a typical medical electrical device will have at least 10 harmonized standards, and Appendix 1 of this document lists some 26 harmonized standards that would apply to a typical full featured patient monitor.

Keeping on top of all these standards retrospectively is arguably beyond what can reasonably be expected of manufacturers. Benefits from new standards would be offset by adverse effects such as impeding innovation and increasing costs of medical devices. Another less obvious effect is that it tends to make standards less effective: recognizing the heavy burden, third parties often allow simplifications to make the standards easier to apply retrospectively, but these simplifications set up precedents that can take many years to reverse. 

Not only are there a large number of standards being regularly updated, there are also many “brand new” standards which are harmonized without any transition period. This poses a special case where retrospective application is impossible, since a manufacturer cannot know when a standard will be harmonized. In a sense, the standard becomes instantaneously effective on the day it is first published in the Official Journal.

In literature associated with EN 60601-1:2006 (IEC 60601-1:2005), it has been pointed out that the original standard has been around for many years, thus manufacturers have no excuse for further delays beyond June 2012. But this is again an example where only high profile standards are being considered, not the full range of both harmonized and non-harmonized standards.

The “no excuse” interpretation implies that manufacturers must watch IEC or ISO publications, anticipate and prepare for harmonization. But this is not only unfair since there are many IEC and ISO standards that never get harmonized, it is also logistically impossible. There are many examples where the time from first publication as IEC or ISO to publication in the Official Journal is less than 18 months[2]; no reasonable law could expect implementation in such a short time, particularly in the context of retrospective application. Moreover, the simple logistics of CE marking (such as the declaration of conformity, technical file) would be impossible arrange in a single day when the standard first appears in the Official Journal.

The case of “brand new” standards alone provides simple, unarguable evidence that the presumption of conformity cannot apply at the time of placing on the market, without violating the principles of proportionality and legal certainty[3].

A more complex situation exists with manufacturer requirements, usually in the form of management systems. EN 60601-1:2006 highlights these problems as it has both product and manufacturer requirements in the same standard. Manufacturer requirements are those which require the manufacturer to take some specific action indirect to the product; while these actions are intended to have an influence on the product they are often several layers removed, such as the retention of qualification records of persons involved in the design.   

Historically, the new approach directives were based on product requirements, and it is arguable that areas of the directive have not been fortified to handle manufacturer requirements. Even the definition of a harmonized standard is “a specification contained in a document which lays down the characteristics required of a product …”[4], and thus appears not to have provision for manufacturer requirements.

Since the principles of free movement, essential requirements the presumption of conformity all  apply to the device, it is obvious management systems alone cannot be used to provide a presumption of conformity; rather it is the design specifications, verification records and other product related documents output from the management system which provide the main evidence of conformity.

If a harmonized management system standard is updated, the question then arises about the validity of product related documents which were output from the old system. In other words, whether the older documents still provide a presumption of conformity. Moreover, if a “brand new” management system standard is harmonized (such as EN 62304), the question arises whether manufacturers are required to apply the management system in retrospect for older designs.

This is very different to product requirements. A change in product requirements might be annoying, but generally limited in the amount of resources required for re-testing or redesign for specific technical issues. In contrast, a change in a management system can invalidate large amounts documentation and  trigger a massive amount of rework, far beyond what is reasonable to achieve the objective of health and safety. Manfacturer requirements are clearly written to apply at the time of design: the costs are relatively small if applied at the time of design, whereas as the implementation after the design is complete can be incredibly high.

Consider for example, a manufacturer that has an older programmable system, but did not record whether the persons validating the design were not involved in the design, as required by EN 60601-1:2006, Clause 14.11. A strict, retrospective interpretation would find all the validation tests invalid, and force the manufacturer to repeat them all again at great cost.

Thus, while less straightforward, management systems also provide a fairly strong argument that the presumption of conformity applies at the time of design.

In practice, most Notified Bodies take a flexible view on retrospective application of management systems, using common sense, taking into account the amount of work required, and focusing on high level documents associated with high profile standards.

Also with respect to “brand new” standards, Notified Bodies often apply an informal transition period of 3 years from the time a standard first harmonized, recognizing that immediate application is impractical.

While these relaxations are reasonable, they are not supported by the law. This is not a case where vagueness in the law requires Notified Body interpretation to fill in the details; this is in a sense a simple question of when the presumption of conformity applies. The answer, whatever it is, must be universally applied. It is not possible to apply one interpretation to EN 60601-1 and another to EN 62304. All harmonized standards must be treated equally.

With the current law, the only practical universal interpretation is that the presumption of conformity applies at the time of design, as indicated by the “whereas” section of the MDD.

It is worth to note that no official document endorsed by the EU commission indicates that retrospective application is required. This is unlikely to happen as documents issued by the EU are usually carefully vetted by the lawyers, a process which is likely to raise similar concerns as discussed above. In particular, the situation with “brand new” standards (standards without a transition period) will make the commission wary of formally declaring standards to be retrospective.

Also, it is a well established regulatory requirement (e.g. clinical data, EN ISO 13485, EN ISO 14971) that post market monitoring includes the review of new and revised standards.  Thus, the “time of design” interpretation does not imply manufacturers can completely ignore new standards. But importantly, the flexibility in decisions to apply new standards to older designs is made by the manufacturer, not the Notified Body.   

The “time of design” interpretation is not without problems. Designs may take many years to finalize, so the term “time of design” obviously requires clarification. It could also lead to products falling far behind state the art, or failing to implement critical new requirements quickly. Even using the “time of design” interpretation, “brand new” standards still pose a challenge to manufacturers, since it can be impractical to apply even to current designs. So, more work is required.  

But in the context of EN 60601-1:2006, a “time of design” interpretation would act as a pressure relief valve not only for manufacturers, but for all parties involved who are struggling to apply such a large new standard retrospectively.

Appendix 1: Harmonized standards applicable to a patient monitor

The following is a list of harmonized standards which are currently applicable to a typical full featured patient monitor including accessories. Items shown in brackets are standards which are expected to replace the existing standard or are already in transition.

EN 980

EN 1041

EN 1060-1

EN 1060-3

EN 1060-4 (ISO 81060-2)

EN ISO 9919 (EN 80601-2-61)

EN ISO 10993-1

EN ISO 12470-1

EN ISO 12470-4 (EN 80601-2-56)

EN ISO 13485

EN ISO 14971

EN ISO 17664

EN ISO 21647

EN ISO 20594-1

EN 60601-1

EN 60601-1-2

EN 60601-1-4 (EN 60601-1/Clause 14)

EN 60601-1-6

EN 60601-1-8

EN 60601-2-27

EN 60601-2-30 (EN 80601-2-30)

EN 60601-2-34

EN 60601-2-49

EN 60601-2-51

EN 62366

EN 62304


[1] The actual date will depend on particular standards

[2] See EN 62366 (Usability Engineering) which has only 13 months from publication as IEC to listing in the Official Journal.

[3] As required by the “Treaty of the European Union” 

[4] See directive 98/34/EC

IEC 60601-2-25 Clause Input Impedance

The input impedance test is fairly simple in concept but can be a challenge in practice. This article explains the concept, briefly reviews the test, gives typical results for ECGs and discusses some testing issues. 

What is input impedance? 

Measurement of voltage generally requires loading of the circuit in some way. This loading is caused by the input impedance of the meter or amplifier making the measurement. 

Modern multimeters typically use 10MΩ input for dc measurements and 1MΩ for ac measurements. This high impedance is usually has negligible effect, but if the input impedance is similar to the circuit impedance significant errors can result. For example, in the circuit shown, the real voltage at Va should be exactly 1.000Vdc, but a meter with 10MΩ input impedance will cause the voltage to fall by about 1.2%, due to the circuit resistance of 240kΩ.   

Input impedance can be derived (measured) from the indicated voltage if the circuit is known and resistances are high enough to to make a significant difference relative to noise and resolution of the measurement system. For example in Figure 1, if the supply voltage, Rs and Ra are known, it is possible to work back from the displayed value (0.9881) and calculate an input impedance of 10MΩ. 

The test

The test for ECGs is now largely harmonised in all the IEC and ANSI/AAMI standards, and uses a test impedance of 620kΩ in parallel with 4.7nF. Although the requirement is written with a limit of 2.5MΩ minimum input impedance, the actual test only requires the test engineer to confirm if the voltage has dropped by 20% or less, relative a the value shown without the test impedance.  

ECGs are ac based measurements so the test is usually performed with an sine wave input signal. Input impedance can also change with frequency, so the IEC standards perform the test at two points: 0.67Hz and 40Hz. Input impedance test is also performed with ±300mV offset, and repeated for each lead electrode. That makes a total of 2 frequencies x 4 conditions (reference value + open + 2 offsets) x 9 electrodes = 72 test conditions for a 12 Lead ECG.  

Typical results

Most ECGs have the following typical results:   

  • no measurable reduction at 0.67Hz
  • mild to significant reduction at 40Hz, sometimes close to the 20% limit
  • not affected by ±300mV dc offset 

Issues, experience with the test set up and measurement

Although up to 72 measurements can be required (for a 12 Lead ECG), in practice it is reasonable to reduce the number of tests on the basis that selected tests are representative. For example, Lead I, Lead III, V1 could be comprehensively tested, while Lead II, V1 and V5 could be covered by spot checks at 40Hz only, without ±300mV.

In patient monitors with optional 3, 5, and 10 lead cables, it is normal to test the 10 lead cable as representative. However, for the 3 lead cable there can be differences in the hardware design that require it to be separately tested (see this MEDTEQ article on 3-Leads for more details).  

The test is heavily affected by noise. This is a result of the CMRR being degraded due to the high series impedance, or more specifically, the high imbalance in impedance. As this CMRR application note shows, CMRR is heavily dependent on the imbalance impedance. 

An imbalance of 620kΩ is 12 times larger than the CMRR test, so there is proportional degrading of the CMRR by the same factor of 12. This means for example that with a typical set up having 0.1mm (10µV@10mm/mV) mains noise for typical tests, would increase to 1.2mm of noise once the 620kΩ/4.7nF is in circuit. 

For the 0.67Hz test, the noise appears as a think line. It is possible consider the noise as an artefact and measure the middle point this think line (that is, ignore the noise). This is a valid approach especially as at 0.67Hz, there is usually no measurable reduction, so even increased measurement error from the noise, it is a clear "Pass" result. 

However, for the 40Hz test there is no line as such, and the noise is similar frequency resulting in beating, obscuring the result. And the result is often close to the limit. As such, the following is steps are recommended to minimise the noise:  

  • take extra care with the test environment, check grounding connections between the test circuit, the ECG under test, and the ground plate under the test set up
  • During measurement, touch the ground plate (this has often been very effective)
  • If noise still appears, use a ground plate above the test set up as well (experience indicates this works well)
  • Enable the mains frequency filter; this is best done after at least some effort is made to reduce the noise to using one or more of the methods above to avoid excessive reliance on the filter
  • Increase to a higher printing speed, e.g. 50mm/s 

Note that if the filter is used it should be on for the whole test. Since 40Hz is close to 50Hz, many simple filters have a measurable reduction at 40Hz. Since the test is proportional (relative), having the filter on does not affect the result as long as it is enabled for both the reference and actual measurement (i.e. with and without the test impedance). 

ECG Leads - an explanation

From a test engineer's point of view, it is easy to get confused with LEADS and LEAD ELECTRODES, because for a typical electrical engineer, "lead" and "electrode" are  basically the same thing. But there is more confusion here than just terminology. How do they get a "12 lead ECG" for a cable with only 10 leads? Why is it that many tests in IEC standards ask you to start with RA, yet the indication on the screen is upside down? Why is it that when you put a voltage on RA, a 1/3 indication appears on the V electrodes?

Starting with this matrix diagram, the following explanation tries to clear up the picture:

LEAD ELECTRODES are defined as the parts that you can make electrical connection to, such as RA, LA, LL, V1 and so on. On the other hand, LEADS are what the doctor views on the screen or print out.

There are a couple of reasons why these are different. Whenever you measure a voltage it is actually a measurement between two points. In a normal circuit there is a common ground, so we often ignore or assume this second reference point, but it's always there. Try and measure a voltage using one point of connection, and you won't get far.

ECGs don't have a common reference point, instead physicians like to see different "views" of the heart's electrical activity, each with it's own pair of reference points or functions of multiple points. One possibility would be to always identify the points of reference, but this would be cumbersome. Instead, ECGs use labels such as "Lead I" or "Lead II" to represent the functions.

For example "Lead I" means the voltage between LA and RA, or mathematically LA - RA. Thus, a test engineer that puts a positive 1mV pulse on RA relative to LA can expect to see an inverted (negative) pulse on Lead I.

Leads II and III are similarly LL-RA and LL-LA. 

The waveforms aVR, aVL and aVF are in effect the voltages at RA, LA and LL respectively, using the average of the other two as the second reference point.

Waveforms V1 ~ V6 (where provided) are the waveforms at chest electrodes V1 ~ V6 with the average of RA, LA and LL as the second reference point.

These 12 waveforms (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1 ~ V6) form the basis of a "12 lead ECG".

Whether you are working with IEC 60601-2-27 or IEC 60601-2-51, you can refer to the diagram above or Table 110 in IEC 60601-2-51 which shows the relationship between LEAD ELECTRODES and LEADS.

Finally, you may ask what is RL (N) used for? The typical mistake is to assume that RL is a reference point or ground in the circuit, but this is not correct. In most systems, RL is not used for measurement. Rather it is used for noise cancellation, much like noise cancelling headphones, and is often call a "right leg drive". It senses the noise (usually mains hum) on RA/LA/LL, inverts and feeds back to RL. For testing IEC 60601-1, engineers should take note of the impedance in the right leg drive, as this tends to be the main factor which limits dc patient currents in single fault condition.

Exercise (test your understanding)

To check your understanding of the matrix, try the following exercise: if a 1mV, positive pulse (e.g. 100ms long) was fed to RA with all other inputs grounded, what would you expect to see on the screen for each lead? The answer is at the end of this page.

Other related information (of interest)

In years gone by, the relationship (matrix) above was implemented in analogue circuits, adding and subtracting the various input voltages. This meant that errors could be significant. Over time, the digital circuits have moved closer and closer to the inputs, and as well the accuracy of remaining analogue electronics has improved, which means it is rare to get any significant error in modern equipment. The newest and best equipment has a wide range high resolution input analogue to digital conversion very close to the input, allowing all processing (filtering as well as lead calculation) to be performed in software.

It is interesting to note that mathematically, even though there are 12 Leads, there are only 8 "raw" waveforms. Four of the 12 waveforms can be derived from the other 8, meaning they are just different ways of looking at the same information. For example, Lead III = Lead II - Lead I. It makes sense, since there are only nine points electrical connections used for measurement (remember, RL is not used for measurement), and the number of raw waveforms is one less than the number of measurement points (i.e. one waveform requires 2 measurement points, 2 waveforms requires at least 3 points, an so on). This is the reason why systems can use 8 channel ADC converters, and also why the waveform data used IEC 60601-2-51 tests (such as CAL and ANE waveforms) uses just 8 channels of raw data to create a full 12 Lead ECG.

Although the standard usually indicates that RA is the first lead electrode to be tested, if you want to get a normal looking waveform from a single channel source, it is best to put the output to LL (F) so that you get a positive indication on Lead II. Most systems default to a Lead II display, and often use Lead II to detect the heart rate. If your test system can select to put the output to more than one lead electrode, select LA and LL, which will give a positive indication on Lead I and Lead II (although Lead III will be zero).

Results of the exercise (answer)

If a +1mV pulse was applied to RA only, the following indications are expected on the screen (or printout). If you did not get these results or do not understand why these values occurred, go back and study the matrix relationships above. For the Lead electrodes, use RA = 1 and for all other use 0, and see what the result is.



Indication direction

Indication amplitude



















V1 ~ V6





Defibrillator Proof Testing

(this material is copied across from the original MEDTEQ website, developed around 2009)


Defibrillator proof testing is common for equipment associated with patient monitoring, HF surgical (neutral electrode) and ECG, and any device that may remain attached to a patient during defibrillation. In order to speed up delivery of the defibrillator pulse, it is desirable to leave many of the applied parts connected to the patient; thus such applied parts should be able to withstand a pulse without causing an unacceptable risk. In general, a defibrillator proof specification is optional, however, particular standards may specify that it is mandatory (for example, ECG related).

This section covers the following topics related to defibrillator proof testing (defib testing):

Potential hazards / Defibrillator pulse characteristics / Design considerations / Practical testing / Test equipment calibration

Potential hazards

The potential hazards associated with the use of a defibrillator when other equipment is connected to the patient are:

  • permanent damage of medical equipment attached to the patient
  • loss of critical data, settings, operation for monitoring equipment attached to the patient
  • inability of monitoring equipment to operate to determine the status of the patient (after defibrillation)
  • shunting (loss) of defibrillator energy
  • conduction of defibrillator energy to the operator or unintended locations in the patient

All of these are addressed by IEC 60601-1:2005 (Clause 8.5.5), although particular standards such as IEC 60601-2-27 (ECG, monitoring) may specify more detail in the compliance criteria. The tests identify two paths in which the defibrillator pulse can stress the equipment: 

  • Common mode: in this case the voltage typically appears accross patient isolation barriers associated with Type F insulation.
  • Differential mode: in this case the voltage will appear between applied parts

Design and testing considerations for both of these modes are detailed below.

Defibrillator pulse characteristics

For the purpose of testing other than the shunting of energy, the standard specifies a defib pulse sourced from a 32uF capacitor, charged to 5000V (equivalent to 400J), which is then discharged via series inductor (500µH, max 10Ω). For copyright reasons, please refer to the standard for the actual circuit diagram.

These values are historically based on older style "monophasic" defibrillators that were designed to deliver a maximum of 360J to the patient with peak voltages around 5kV and peak current of 50A. Assuming the inductor has a resistance of 5Ω, and the remaining components are nominal values, the simulated nominal waveform is as follows (this simulation is based on differential step analysis, a excel sheet using the simulation allowing component variation can be downloaded here): 


The drop in peak voltage from the expected 5000V is due to the series resistance in the inductor creating a divider with the main 100Ω resistor. In this case, since 5Ω was assumed there is ~5% drop. The rise time of this waveform is mainly influenced by the inductor/resistor time constant (= L/R = 500µH / 105Ω = ~ 5µs), while the decay time is largely influenced by the capacitance/resistance time constant  (32µF/105Ω = ~ 3.2ms). Again using ideal values (and 5Ω for inductor resistance), the expected values are:

Peak voltage, Vp = 4724V
Rise time (time from 30% -> 90% of peak), tr = 9.0µs
Fall time (start of waveform to to 50% of peak), tf = 2.36ms

The leading edge of the ideal waveform is shown in more detail here:

Modern defibrillators use "biphasic" waveforms with much lower peak voltages, and lower energy may be considered safer and more effective (see this article for an example). Also, as the standard points out, in the real world the voltage that appears in applied parts will be less than that delivered by the defibrillator. However, the standard continues to use the full high voltage monophasic pulse (tested at both polarities) for the basis of the test. In practice this often has little effect since the Type F insulation in equipment is usually designed to withstand 1.5kVrms for 1 minute, which is much more tough than 5kV pulse lasting for a few milliseconds. However, occasional problems have been noted due to spark gaps positioned across patient insulation areas with operating voltages around 3kV. When tested in mains operation, there is no detectable problem, but when tested in battery operation breakdown of the spark gap can lead to excess energy passing to the operator (see more details below). 

For the energy reduction test (IEC 60601-1, the standard specifies a modified set up using a 25mH inductor, rather than the 500µH specified above. Also, the inductor resistance is fixed at 11Ω. This leads to a much slower rise time in the waveform, and also a significant reduction in the peak voltage:

For this test, the nominal waveform parameters are:

Peak voltage, Vp = 3934V
Rise time (time from 30% -> 90% of peak), tr = 176µs
Fall time (start of waveform to to 50% of peak), tf = 3.23ms

As discussed in the calibration section below, it can be difficult to realise these waveforms in practice due to difference between component parameters measured at low current, voltage and frequency (e.g. an LCR meter), compared to actual results at high current, voltage, and frequency.

Design considerations

The following considerations should be taken by designers of equipment for defibrillator protection, and also verification test engineers (in-house or third party laboratories), prior to performing the tests to ensure that test results are as expected.

A) Common mode insulation
Solid insulation (wiring, transformers, opto-couplers)

During the common mode test, the Type F patient isolation barrier will most likely be stressed with the defib pulse. However, although the peak defib voltage is higher than F-type applied part requirements, for solid insulation an applied voltage of 1.5kVrms applied for 1 minute (2.1kVpeak) is far more stressful than 5kV pulse where the voltage exceed 2kV for less than 3ms. Thus, no special design consideration is needed.

Spacing (creepage, clearance)

According to IEC 60601-1, it is necessary to widen the applicable air clearance from 2.5mm to 4.0mm for applied parts with a defibrillator proof rating, which matches the limit for creepage distance. Since in most cases the minimum measured creepage and clearance are at the same point (e.g. between traces on a PCB), this often has little effect. However, in rare cases, such as in an assembled device, clearances may be less than creepage distances.

EMC bridging components (capacitors, resistors, sparkgaps)

For EMC, it is common to have capacitors, resistors and sparkgaps bridging the patient isolation barrier. In general, there are no special concerns since the insulation properties (1.5kVrms, 1min) ensure compliance with 5kVp defib pulse, and impedance of these components is also far higher than needed to ensure compliance with leakage current limits. Based on simulations, a 10nF capacitor or a 150kΩ resistor would result in a borderline pass/fail result for the test for operator shock (1V at the Y1-Y2 terminals), but such components would result in a leakage current in the order of 1mA during the mains on applied part test, a clear failure.

The one exception is the spark gap: provided the rating is above 5kV, there is no concern, however, cases have been noted of spark gaps rated at around 3kV, and breaking down during the test. This is of particular concern for patient monitors utilising battery operation, since in this battery operation the energy can be transferred to the operator via the enclosure (in mains operation, the energy flows to earth and causes no harm).

Although there are arguments that the 5kV peak is too high, unfortunately this is still specified in the standard, and it is recommended that any spark gaps bridging the patient isolation barrier have a rated voltage which ensures no breakdown at 5kV. In order to allow for tolerance, this may mean using a spark gap rated at around 6kV.

B) Differential insulation (general)

For equipment with multiple applied parts (such as a patient monitor), differential insulation is needed to ensure compliance with the differential test (exception is the ECG function, which is discussed below) and the energy reduction test. While this insulation can be provided in the equipment, typical implementation relies on insulation in the sensor itself, to avoid the need to design multiple isolated circuits. Typically, common temperature sensors, IBP transducers and re-useable SpO2 probes provide adequate insulation, given the relatively light electrical stress of a defib pulse (again, although it is high peak voltage, the short duration means most modern material have little problem withstanding a pulse).

However, it can be difficult for a manufacturer of a patient monitor to provide evidence of conformity for all the sensors that might be used with a monitor, since a large range of sensors can be used (in the order of 20-100), as optional accessories, and these are manufacturered by other companies. In some cases, the manufacturer of the patient monitor does not actually specify which sensors can be used, simply designing the equipment to interface with a wide range of sensors (e.g. temp, IBP, ECG electrodes).  

Currently, IEC standards for patient monitors treat the device and accessories as one complete item of "equipment" . This does not reflect the actual market nor the current regulatory environment, which allows the separation of a main unit and sensors, in a way which allows interchangeability without compromising safety. Although a manufacturer of a patient monitor may go to the extreme of testing the monitor with all combinations of sensors, this test is relatively meaningless in the regulatory environment since the patient monitor has no control over design and production of the sensors (thus, for example, a sensor manufacturer may change the design of a sensor without informing the patient monitor, invalidating the test results).

In the modern regulatory environment, a system such as this should have suitable interface specifications which ensures that the complete system is safe and effective regardless of the combination of devices. To address the defibrillation issue, for example, sensor manufacturers should include a specification to withstand a 5kV defib pulse without breakdown between the applied part of the sensor (e.g. probe in in saline) and the internal electrical circuit. It is expected that manufacturers of sensors are aware of this issue and are apply suitable design and production tests. IEC standards should be re-designed to support this approach.

To date there are no reported problems, and experience with testing a range of sensors has found no evidence of breakdown. Due to failure of the standards to address this issue appropriately, test laboratories are recommended to test patient monitor equipment with the samples selected by the patient manufacturer, rather than the complete list of accessories.

There is a question about disposable SpO2 sensors, since the insulation in the sensor is not as "solid" as non-disposable types. However, provided all other applied parts have insulation, this is not a concern.

C) Differential protection (ECG)

The ECG function differs in that direct electrical connection to the patient is part of normal use. Thus, it is not possible to rely on insulation for the differential test, and there are several additional complications.

Manufacturers normally comply with the basic differential requirement by using a shunt arrangement: a component such as gas tube spark gap or MOV is placed in parallel with the leads, and shunts the energy away from the internal circuits. Since the clamping voltage of these devices is still relatively high (50-100V), series resistors after the clamping device are still needed to prevent damage to the electrical circuit. These resistors combine with input clamping diodes (positioned at the input of the op-amp) so that the remaining current is shunted through the power supply rails.

Early designs placed the clamping devices directly across the leads, which led to the problem of excessive energy being lost into the ECG, a hazard since it reduces the effectiveness of the defib pulse itself. This in turn led to the "energy reduction test", first found in IEC 60601-2-49 (only applicable to patient monitors), then part of IEC 60601-2-27:2005 and now finally in the general standard (applicable to all devices with a defib rating). To comply with this requirement, the ECG input needs additional current limiting resistors before the clamping device, so a typical design will now have resistors before and after the clamping device. From experience, resistor values of 1kΩ will provide a borderline pass/fail result, higher values of at least 10kΩ are recommended (50kΩ seems to be a typical value). While patient monitors under IEC 60601-2-49 have dealt with this requirement for many years, diagnostic ECGs will also have to comply with this requirement after the 3rd edition becomes effective. This may result in conflicts since many diagnostics ECGs try to reduce the series impedance to improve signal to noise ratios (e.g. CMRR), and may not have any resistors positioned ahead of the clamping device.

The protection network (resistors, shunt device) can be placed in the ECG lead or internal to the equipment. The circuit up to the protection network should be designed with sufficient spacing/insulation to withstand the defibrillator pulse. The resistors prior to the shunt device should be of sufficient power rating to withstand multiple pulses, taking into account normal charging time (e.g. 30s break) in between pulses.

Figure: typical ECG input circuit design for defibrillator protection

An additional problem with ECG inputs is due to the low frequency, high pass filter with a pole situated around 0.67Hz for "monitoring" filter setting, and 0.05Hz for the "diagnostic" setting. A defibrillator pulse will saturate this filter (base line saturation), preventing normal monitoring for extended periods., This is a serious hazard if the ECG function is being used to determine if the defib pulse was successful. Manufacturers typically include a base-line reset function in either hardware and/or software to counter this problem. There have been cases where in a "diagnostic" setting, the baseline reset is not effective (due to the large overload), and some manufacturers have argued that the "diagnostic" mode is a special setting and therefore the requirements do not apply. However, this argument is weak if analyzed carefully using risk management principles. Even if the probability of defibrillating the patient when the equipment is in the "diagnostic setting" is low (e.g. 0.01), the high severity (death) would make it unacceptable not to provide a technical solution.

Finally, there is a testing in the ECG particulars (IEC 60601-2-25, IEC 60601-2-27) which involves use of real gel type ECG electrodes. This test is intended to determine the effects of current through the electrodes. Excessive current can damage the electrodes, causing an unstable dc offset that prevents monitoring and hence determination of a sucessful defibrillation - a critical issue. While it has all good intentions, this test unfortunately is not well designed, since it is not highly repeatable and greatly dependent on the electrodes tested. In the real world, ECG equipment is used with a wide variety of electrodes which are selected by the user, and not controlled by the manufacturer. There is little logical justification for testing the ECG with only one type of electrode. Fortunately, the energy reduction test has largely made this a irrelevant issue - in order to comply with that test, equipment now typically includes series resistors of at least 10kΩ. This series resistance also reduces the current through the gel electrodes. Experience from tests indicates that equipment with series resistors of 10kΩ or higher, there is no detectable difference between the test with electrodes and without electrodes, regardless of the type of electrode. Logically, standards should look at replacing this test with a measurement of the current, with a view to limit this to a value that is known to be compatible with standards for get electrodes (e.g. ANSI/AAMI EC12:2000 Disposable ECG electrodes, 3ed.).  

Practical testing


Testing of a single function device is relatively simple. However, testing of a multiparameter patient monitor can explode the potential number of tests. In order to reduce the number of individual tests, it is possible to use some justification based on typical isolation structures and design:

  • common mode test: this test can be performed with all applied part functions shorted together, similarly with all accessible parts (including isolated signal circuits) shorted together. If applied parts such as temp/SpO2/IBP all connect into a single circuit, make your applied part connection directly to this circuit rather than wasting time with probes in saline solution. Ensure that the test without mains connection is performed if battery powered, this will be the worst case. If with this simplification, the Y1-Y2 result is <1V, then logically tests to individual functions will also comply. Once this is confirmed, no further testing for operator protection (Y1-Y2) is needed. Because of leakage current requirements, measurements more than 0.1V (Y1-Y2) are not possible, unless a spark gap is used (see design discussion above). If a spark gap of less than 5kV is used, expect a result around 20-30V (i.e. well above the 1V limit). Prior to the test, inspect the circuit for the presense of spark gaps and confirm the rating is appropriate. See below for more details on the operator energy test (measurement).
  • differential mode test: this will need to be done with each function one by one. In theory, for non-ECG functions, the probe insulation should be verified, but in practice this is the responsibility of the probe manufacturer (see discussion above), thus usually only one representative test is performed. It is also possible in theory that capacitive current accross the insulation barrier may interupt patient monitor operation including the measurement circuits. However, experience indicates that Temp, IBP and SpO2 inputs are hardly affected by the pulse, due to high levels of software averaging and noise reduction with these types of measurement. Tests with a representative probe (ideally, the largest probe with the greatest capacitance) is considered reasonable to verify the monitor is not affected. To save time, tests with non-ECG functions should be performed first with the 0.5mH/50Ω set up to confirm no damage, no detectable impact to function (i.e. measurement accuracy); and then change to the 25mH/400Ω set up for the energy reduction test. Refer to particular standards special test conditions (for example, IEC 60601-2-34 requires the sensor to be pressurised at 50% of full scale, typically 150mmHg)

    ECG testing is more complicated in that there are many different leads, filter settings and failed results are not uncommon. Refer to the set up in the standards (IEC 60601-2-25, IEC 60601-2-27). Additional notes are: It is recommended to limit tests with the monitoring setting to RA, LA, LL, V1, V6 and N (RL) , with V2 - V5 skipped since the design of V1 - V6 is common. Usually for testing to N (RL), no waveform is possible, so recovery time cannot be measured, but it should still be confirmed that the monitor is functional after the test. For "diagnostic" and other filter settings, testing of RA, LA, LL  only is justified (V1 ~ V6 are not intended to be used for seeing if the defibrillation is effective). Keep records (strip printouts) of representative tests only rather than all tests, unless a failed result occurs. Keep in mind that some monitors allow the waveform to drift over the screen, this should not be considered a non-conformity as long as the waveform is visible. Take care with excessively repeating tests in a short period to a single lead, as this can damage the internal resistors. Careful inspection of the standards (general, ECG related) indicates that for differential mode, only a three tests should be performed (2 x 0.5mH, +/-; 1 x 25mH + only).
  • energy reducton test: for this test you will need an oscilloscope with a high voltage probe and an integration function (modern oscilloscopes provide for this function, or data download to excel for analysis). Energy can be determined from the integration of V2/R (E = ∫ v(t)2dt) / R), measured directly accross the 100Ω resistor. Experiment without the device connected to get a value around 360J (a reduction from 400J is expected due to the resistance of the inductor). The following set up problems have been noted:
    • with some older types of oscilloscopes, n calculation overflow can occur due to squaring high voltage, this can be countered by moving the equation around (i.e. moving the 1/R inside the integration, or ignoring the probe ratio and setting the range to 1V/div rather than 1000V/div).
    • the capacitor's value will vary as the capacitor and equipment heats up, and this may result in around 2-3% change between pulses. This may be countered by charging/discharging several times before starting tests. Even after this, variations of 1-2% between pulses can be expected.

As discussed above, non-ECG sensors rarely breakdown, and for the ECG function, provided the manufacturer has included appropriately rated series resistors of 10kΩ or higher, the result will clearly in compliance despite set up variabilities. If the manufacturer uses only 1kΩ series resistors in the ECG function, a borderline (failed) result can be expected. Inspect the circuit in the cable and equipment before the test.   

  • operator energy test (measurement): This test measures the voltage between Y1-Y2. A value of 1V represents 100µC charge passing through the equipment to the operator. As discussed above, there is no expected design which will result in a borderline pass/fail, either there will be only noise recorded (<0.1V), or a complete failure (>20V). From experience, as there is a tendency for the pick up of noise in the oscilloscope seen as a spike of >1V and less than 5ms. The output of the set up is such that a "true result" should be a slowly decaying waveform (τ = 1µF x 1MΩ = 1s), so that any short duration spike can be ignored. Alternately, the Y1-Y2 output can be connected to a battery operated multimeter with 10MΩ input and peak hold (min/max) function. With a 10MΩ input, the decaying waveform has a time constant of 10s, easily allowing the peak hold to operate accurately. The battery operation ensures little noise pick up, and continuous monitoring helps to ensure the 1µF capacitor is fully discharged before the test. 

Test equipment calibration

Calibration of defib testing equipment is extremely complicated, since the standard only specifies component values, with relatively tight tolerances. It is arguable that this is an erroneous approach, partly because of the difficulties in measurement of internal components, but mainly due to the reality that measurement of component values at low voltage, current and frequency (e.g. DMM and or LCR meters) is not reflective of the values of these components under high voltage, high current and high frequency conditions of use. For example, an inductor measured at 1kHz with a low current low voltage LCR is unlikely to be representative of the inductor's real value at peak currents of 50A, rise times of <10µs (noting for example, skin/parasitic effects at high current/frequency), and with a coil stress likely to be exceeding 100V/turn. Therefore, it is justified (as many laboratories do) to limit the calibration to a few values and inspection of the output waveform. The following items are recommended:

  • the accuracy of meter displaying the dc charging voltage (limit is not clearly specified, but recommended to be ±1%)
  • monitoring of the waveform shape to be within an expected range (see 3 waveforms below, also download excel simulator from here)
  • measurement of the 100Ω, 50Ω and 400Ω resistors
  • measurement of the Y1-Y2 voltage with a known resistor (see below)

Based on simulations, the following waveforms show the nominal (blue line), and outer range assuming worst case tolerances as allowed by the standard (±5%):

Waveform #1: 500µH (full waveform), nominal assumes 5Ω inductor resistance

Waveform #1: 500µH (expanded rise time), nominal assumes 5Ω inductor resistance

Waveform #3: 25mH (full waveform)

 If, as can be expected, actual waveforms do not comply within these limits, the following extenuating circumstances may be considered: if the rise time and peak values are higher than expected (likely due to problems with the series inductor), this waveform can be considered as being more stressful than the requirements in the standard. Since the design of equipment is not expected to fail, equipment that passes under higher rise time/voltage conditions can be considered as complying with the standard.

For the operator energy circuit, the circuit can be tested by replacing the device under test with a resistor. Using simulations (including the effect of the diodes), the following resistor values yield:

100.0kΩ     ⇒  Y1-Y2 = 1.38V
135.6kΩ     ⇒  Y1-Y2 = 1.00V
141.0kΩ     ⇒  Y1-Y2 = 0.96V
150.0kΩ     ⇒  Y1-Y2 = 0.90V

 The 141kΩ can be made up of 3 series 47kΩ, 0.25W standard metal film resistors. The expected energy per pulse is only 85mW/resistor. If other types of resistors are used, ensure they are suitably non-inductive @ 100kHz.

Since there are several components in this circuit, and taking into account the nature of the test, outputs within 15% of the expected value can be considered to be calibrated.

[End of material]


IEC 60601-2-47 (AAMI/ANSI EC 57) Databases

This page contains zip files of the ECG databases referred to in IEC 60601-2-47 (also ANSI/AAMI EC 57) and which are offered free by Physionet. The files can also be downloaded individually from the Physionet ATM and also via the the database description pages as shown below. The zip files contain the heater file (*hea), the data file (*dat) and the annotation file (*atr) for each waveform.

The software for the MECG can load these files individually via the main form button "Get ECG source from file" and the subform function "Physionet (*.hea)". The header file (*hea) and the data file (*.dat) must be unzipped into the same directory for the function to work. The annotation file (*.atr) is not used by the MECG software. It is intended for use as the reference data when analyzing the output results using the WFDB functions such as bxb

The AHA database is not free and must be purchased from ECRI

Database File Size (MB)
MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database 63
European ST-T Database 283
MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database 19
Creighton University Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Database 5






Note: these databases have been downloaded automatically using software developed by MEDTEQ. There are a large number of files and the original download process required a relatively long period of time. If any files are missing or incomplete, please report to MEDTEQ. Note that the zip files may include waveforms which are excluded in the standard (e.g. MIT-BIH waveforms 102, 104, 107, 217 are normally excluded from the tests). 


IEC 62304 Software Development Life Cycle

Search for the term design life cycle in Google Images and you will find a plethora of circular flowing images, creating the impression that a design life cycle is an abstract concept, one that guides the flow rather than provides any detailed structure or definition to the design process.

While an abstract guide may be useful, it has little place in a regulatory or legal context. Regulations aren't about good guidance such as writing clean code; regulations and standards need to provide requirements which at least in principle can be both interpreted consistently and where compliance can be verified.

Fortunately, a close look at IEC 62304 finds that a design life cycle is in fact well defined and verifiable requirement.  A life cycle consists of defined phases, each with specific inputs and outputs (deliverables). These inputs and outputs form the tangible elements which can be checked for plausible implementation. 

For example, a realistic life cycle might start with an "Draft documentation" phase, which has no formal inputs, but outputs documents such as the draft project plan, system specifications, initial risk analysis. The next phase may be "Stage 1 Approval" which reviews and approves those documents (as inputs) and and creates a review report, and formally approved plan, specifications, risk analysis (as outputs). A later stage might be "Final Testing" which uses the test plan, starting code, prototype, with the output being the final code, configuration report, test reports, summary report, completed risk traceability matrix, design change records and so on.  

As such, a design life cycle starts when the first document is approved (typically the plan), and continues to control the activities in the design process. It is closely related to a design plan: a plan includes the life cycle and adds supporting information such as requirements for document control, configuration management, change control, definitions for responsibility and authority, linkage to system specifications and so on. 

Life cycle timing

Given that a regulatory life cycle starts when the first document is approved (and not at the brainstorming meeting or when the designer has a 3am eureka moment), it is an important question to ask: when should this formal life cycle start? 

Experts are likely to say "as soon as possible", or "whenever any significant design activity occurs". These answers, while said with all good intentions are both wrong and often dangerous. 

The correct answer is: whenever the manufacturer likes. There is no legal obligation to keep records of the design process as it happens. A manufacturer can spend 10 years in R&D, legally shred all the records covering the messy development period, and then start a 6 month period creating all the documents required by ISO 13485, IEC 14971, IEC 62304, IEC 62366 and other management standards standards, and be perfectly in compliance with all standards and regulations. 

And in fact, this approach is far more safe than it may appear.

Why do experts assume earlier is better?

One of the reasons why "earlier is better" persists is the common mistake of regarding prototypes as medical devices, which in turn makes us think that regulations naturally apply over the whole development period.

Another reason is the assumption that early design controls and in particular early risk management yields better outcomes.

Both of these are wrong, and the good news is that IEC 62304 appears to have (for the most part) been written by people who have real world experience, and the standard itself does not load designers with any unrealistic expectations. The main problem consists of people who have not read the standard, have no experience in design, and overlay their well intentioned but ultimately misguided interpretations on the standard. 

Prototypes are not medical devices  

Only the device actually placed on the market is a medical device. When the word "medical device" appears in management system standards such as IEC 62304, we tend to naturally extend this to pre-market versions and prototypes. But legally speaking, a manufacturer's responsibility is limited to demonstrating that the marketed device meets the requirements. How they do this is up to them: the history of the product, which is often complicated, messy, includes a mix of new ideas, old ideas, borrowed designs, software bought from a bankrupt company with a great product but no records; all of this is not under the scope of regulations or standards.

You don't need to pretend the process was smooth and controlled: it rarely is. It is only necessary that records exist to support the final marketed device.  

In seminars, this concept is often difficult to get across. Consider the following example for the software history: 

  • Version is released to marked, properly verified according to IEC 62304
  • Version adds new Feature A, is tested but not released, as requests for new feature B came in the mean time
  • Version is released to market with new Features A & B  

A typical exchange in a seminar might go along the following lines: 

[attendee] "So what level of records do I need to keep for V1.0.1.3?"
[speaker] "Well, if you start at V1.0.1.4 ... "
"Sorry to interrupt, but I am talking about V1.0.1.3"
"Yes, but we need to start at V1.0.1.4 ... "
"I DON'T CARE ABOUT V1.0.1.3" [deep breathing, calming down]. "It never went to market. It is not a medical device. You do not need to keep any records for it. Now, we need to look at the records for the real medical device, V1.0.1.4. We might find that tests on V1.0.1.3 were used to to support compliance, or we might find V1.0.1.4 was 100% re-tested, so we can ignore all data from V1.0.1.3."
"Really? I'm still not sure I can just throw out the design test data."
[Inaudible sigh]

To understand the regulatory perspective, always start with the actual marketed device, and work back to the required evidence. Once the evidence is found, you can stop looking.   

The "prototype is a medical device" thinking is not only confusing, it can be dangerous as designers often forget about their obligation to make sure data is representative of the marketed device. In the above example, a court of law would find any testing on V1.0.1.3 for Feature A does not itself form any legal evidence for the marketed version This is one area where IEC 62304 is weakly structured: if a serious incident occurred and the cause found that Feature B interfered with Feature A, there is no record required by the standard which clearly identifies the responsible person that decided not to re-test Feature A again in V1.0.1.4. Amendment 1 improved the text in 6.3.1, but there are no required records pertaining to the decision not to retest. As design changes accumulate, the relationship between the tests on the older versions and the final marketed device gets progressively weaker.  

This may seem a digression from the design life cycle, but understanding the need to be representative of the marketed device is an important factor in deciding when to start the formal, regulatory life cycle. 

Early designs change more than you think

Those outside of the design process might think that design is simply about writing specifications, writing some code and checking that it works as expected, ironing out the occasional bug that occurs along the way. 

In reality, designs are multi-dimensional problems that our brains are simply not smart enough to solve in a logical way. This means that trial and error forms a huge part of design, with as much as 90% of trials ending in failure (hence the phrase trial and error). Some failures are detected quickly, others advance for months or years before realising it is unworkable. Some failures are quickly corrected, others require major surgery. 

This is important to understand for two reasons: first, formal design controls can be more of a hindrance than a help for designs that are still young, unstable and working through this trial and error phase. Having to update specifications, architecture every step of the way can be so onerous as to grind the process to a halt. To survive, designers often opt for a simplified "lite mode" approach to design controls, keeping everything at a surface level, avoiding detail and not particularly accurate with respect to the real design.

The problem is this "lite mode" continues even to the point of market release. Although designers often have good intentions to document more detail later, the "lite" verses "detail" distinction is not formally identified in the plan, so there is no specific point to switch from "lite" to "detail" and no time or resources allocated for the "detail mode". Couple this with schedule overruns in years and the pressure from management to get the product to market typically means designers quietly stick to the "lite mode" all the way to product release.

Regulators often look for the structure of the documents, but fail to check if the detail is accurate and complete for the final marketed device. If they did, for example, take several random samples from the features in the real medical device, and auditors checked that the architecture, specifications and tests covered these features accurately, they are likely to find at least one or more features where the specifications no longer fit, are lacking reasonable detail, the testing is out of date with the actual design or even the feature is missing entirely from the formal records.   

Thus, it is actually safer to allow designers a free hand to develop the product until the design is stable, and then apply detailed, formal controls with an emphasis of working back from the finished design to ensure the details are accurate according to the marketed product. 

The second is good understanding that system specifications are not black box derived - in other words, you can't sit down and write good specifications without knowing how the design will be implemented. In the early stages of design, solutions will not yet be found, hence reasonable specifications cannot be created early in the cycle. This problem is one of the issues addressed by modern techniques such as agile software development, which understand that rather than preceding detailed design, specifications will emerge and evolve from the design.    

Equally, until the design is stable it won't be clear exactly what the risks are and the best way to handle them. Risk is again not black box driven - the final architecture, structure of the system, platforms and software will yield significantly different risks and risk controls. For example, these days wireless patient monitoring applications via smart phone and the cloud are the flavour of the month. Each company will choose different solutions and in particular vary greatly in delinting the software functions handled by each device in the chain (device attached the patient / smartphone / cloud). Decision on the amount of data storage in each unit, where time stamps are recorded, degree of pre-processing, controls and feedback available to the patient can all have a big influence on any risk evaluation and the associated risk controls.  

This again points to the need to delay formal specifications and risk evaluation until after the design is stable.  

None of this prohibits the manufacturer (designers) from keeping informal documentation: draft plans, specification and risk evaluation, test results which are undoubtedly useful and may even be necessary to keep some control of the design. Nevertheless, it remains a benefit to distinguish this draft stage, which may be deliberately light on detail, not always up to date, and may lack approvals from the formal regulatory stage, which is required to be accurate, approved and complete for the final medical device. 

The best time to start

Deciding the best time to start formal controls is in reality an efficiency decision, and will depend on the individual product. 

For simple designs, it can often be best to leave the formal controls until the design is thought to be 100% stable. This usually means informal testing and debugging against draft specifications until all issues are cleared, followed by the formal life cycle: approval of the specifications, risk management; actual testing; summary report. If during the formal testing issues are still found, the manufacturer can opt to apply configuration management and regression testing after fixing the issues; or re-start the process again from scratch.

For bigger systems, it can be more efficient to break the system into blocks. The blocks can then be treated the same as above (no formal controls until stable); with formal controls applied when the blocks are stable and ready to be integrated.  

The main aspect to consider is the probability that specifications, risk management and test data will be representative of the final medical device. This probability improves as the design becomes more stable. On the other side, there are costs associated with repeating tests with every design change. Having design controls in place allows you to use data on earlier configurations as long as it is representative, which can save considerable time and cost especially for larger systems. An efficient point occurs when the costs of formal design controls balance against the savings from being able to use test data on earlier configurations.   

What if risk evaluation is left too late?

The worry that risk evaluation left late is a valid concern, but the emphasis on early design is a misdirection, at least in the context of standards and regulations. Irrespective of the final solution, the risk must be deemed acceptable by the manufacturer. If the solution is not acceptable, it is not acceptable. Legally, the timing of the decision cannot influence the decision on acceptability. If it does it suggests a deeper problem with the risk management process, such as a lack of control for conflicts of interest. If an unreasonable solution is deemed acceptable just because of the high cost associated with late stage implementation ... then something smells bad in the process that supports that decisions. It is more important to address the inadequacies of the analysis than blame the timing of the analysis. 

Again, none of the above suggests the manufacturer should not be thinking about risks, risk controls and drafting documents prior to the formal design life cycle. But above all this sits the simple approach that the documentation on the final, marketed medical device should be complete and appropriate. The history is irrelevant - the main point is that the marketed medical device should be safe.  

What about agile software development? 

There has been significant discussion about whether agile and similar practices meet the requirements of IEC 62304 and FDA software guides. AAMI TIR45:2012 has been written to address this space, and the FDA has been supportive of the practices given the superior results over waterfall based methods. 

However, much of the guidance continues to use the "prototype is a medical device" philosophy, hence requiring that agile practices, while lighter and focusing on iterations, still need to be documented at every iteration.

Instead, this article suggests agile practices should be considered part of the informal phase of design, where regulatory documentation is not retained. The iterative, collaborative design process eventually outputs a stable design and draft specifications/risk management. Those outputs then forms an input to the formal regulatory stage in which the focus switches to ensuring the documentation is complete and reasonable for the final marketed, medical device.

For example, a surgical laser may have had a internal software controlled start up self test of the overpower protection systems added at the 7th iteration, which while implemented was largely forgotten by the 10th iteration as the focus turned to user interface and high level performance of the system. Left to agile practice alone, the start up test could be easily overlooked in final stage verification tests. This overlooking of internal functions is a frequent issue found in independent testing of safety systems, not only missing specifications and verification, but actual logic errors and software bugs in the final implementation.

The view of this article is that regardless of the history, approach, development model used, the manufacturer needs to be confident that the such a start up self test has been verified for the configuration released to market. Reasonable confidence can only be derived by ignoring the development history and working back from the final, stable device. 

CMRR Testing (IEC 60601-2-25, -2-27, -2-47)

Like EMC, CMRR testing is often considered somewhat of a black art in that the results are unpredictable and variable. This article attempts to clear up some of the issues by first looking at exactly how CMRR works in ECG applications and use of the RL drive to improve CMRR.

It also has a look at the importance of external noise, methods to eliminate and verify the set up is relatively free from external noise.

This application note is intended to support engineers that may already have some experience with CMRR testing but remained confused by variable results in individual set ups.

CMRR analysis from basics

CMRR is often considered a function of op-amp performance, but for the CMRR test in IEC/AAMI standards it turns out the indication on the ECG is mostly due to leakage currents passing through the 51k/47nF impedance.

First, let’s consider the basic test circuit:

For those wondering why the circuit shows 10V and 200pF rather than 20V and 100pF divider found in circuit found in IEC/AAMI standards, this arrangement is the “Thevenin equivalent” and can be considered identical. 

If this circuit was perfect, with the ECG inputs and gain element G floating with infinite input impedance, the 51k/47nF should have no effect and Lead I indication should be zero.

In practice, there will always be some small stray or deliberate capacitance in the system in the order 5 ~ 1000pF. This means the ECG inputs are not perfectly floating and small amounts of leakage will flow in the circuit.  

The main cause of this leakage is the capacitance between each input and shield or ground of the floating ECG circuit, and between that ECG shield/ground and the test system ground.

To understand how these influence the test it is best to re-arrange the circuit in a “long” fashion to appreciate the currents and current flow through the stray capacitance.

In this diagram, stray capacitance Ce-sg is added between the ECG electrode inputs and the ECG circuit ground (which is usually floating).

This capacitance is fairly high due to cable shielding and the internal electronics. Also each electrode has roughly the same stray capacitance. For example, a 12 lead diagnostic ECG measured around 600pF between RA and the shield, with a similar result for LA.

Capacitance Csg-tg between the ECG circuit ground (shield ground) and the test ground is also added.

This value can vary greatly, from as little as 5pF for a battery operated device with the cable well removed from the ground plane, to around 200pF for a mains operated device.

Lets assume Ce-sg are both 100pF, and Csg-tg is 10pF, and try to calculate the current that flows into the circuit. Although it looks complicated, it turns out the 51k/47nF is much smaller impedance compared to the stray capacitance, so as a first step we can ignore it. The total capacitance seen by the source is then a relatively simple parallel/series impedance calculation:  

                Ct = 1/(1/200+ 1/(100+100) + 1/10) = 9pF

We can see here that the largest impedance, in this case Csg-tg (shield to test ground), influences the result the most.


Next, we can calculate the total current flowing into the ECG:

                I = 10Vrms x 2π x 50Hz x 9pF = 28nArms

This seems very tiny, but keep in mind ECGs work of very small voltages.

The trick here is to realise that because Ce-sg is similar for RA and LA, this current will split roughly equally into both leads; around 14nA in our example.


RA has the imbalance of 51kΩ/47nF which has an impedance of Z = 40kΩ at 50Hz. When the 14nA flows thought this it creates 0.56mVrms between RA and LA. This is measured normally and on a 10mm/mV results in around 8mm peak to peak on Lead I of the ECG display.

To summarize, the 10Vrms will cause a small but significant amount of leakage to flow into the ECG circuit. This leakage will split roughly the same into each electrode. Any imbalance in the impedance of each electrode will cause a voltage drop which is sensed as a normal voltage and displayed on the ECG as usual.

In the above example, we can see that the capacitance Csg-tg between the ECG shield and the test ground had the largest effect on the result. We assumed 10pF, but increasing this to just 13pF would be enough to change this to a fail result. Many devices have 100pF or more; and the value can be highly variable due to the position of the shielded cable with respect to ground.

With such a small amount of highly variable capacitance having such a big effect, how can ECGs ensure compliance in practice?

The right leg drive

Most ECGs use a “right leg drive”, which is active noise cancellation and is similar to the methods used by noise cancellation headphones. Although noise “cancellation” implies a simple -1 feedback, it is often implemented a medium gain negative feedback loop, and sometimes with shield also driven at the +1 gain.

Regardless of the method, the basic effect is to absorb the leakage current through the RL electrode, which prevents it from creating a voltage across any impedance imbalance (51k/47nF).

In reality these circuits are not perfect, and in particular it is necessary to include a reasonable size resistor in the RL to prevent high dc currents going to the patient especially in fault condition. This resistor degrades the CMRR performance.

The residual indication on most ECGs (usually 3-7mm) is mostly a measure of the imperfection of the RL drive. This will be different for every manufacturer, but generally repeatable. Two test labs testing the same device should get similar results. Two samples of the same device type (e.g. production line testing) should give roughly the same results.

Since each RL drive system is different it can no longer be predicted how the system will react to changes in the position of the cable with respect to the ground plane. Test experience indicates that most ECGs with a RL drive, the indication reduces if the cable is closer to the test ground (Csg-tg capacitance is increased). With normal set ups, the variation is not big. In an extreme case, a test with 12 lead diagnostic ECG a portion of the cable was tightly wrapped in foil and the foil connected to the test ground. In this case the displayed signal to reduced by about 40%.

It is recommended that the ECG cable is loosely gathered and kept completely over the ground plane. Small changes in the cable position should not have a big effect and not enough to change a Pass/Fail decision. In case of reference tests the cable position might be defined in the test plan.

Systems without A Right leg drive

In general, all mains operated ECGs will employ a RL drive as the leakage will be otherwise too high.

In battery operated systems, some manufacturers may decide not use a RL drive.

Without a RL drive the analysis shows the test result will be directly proportional to the leakage current and hence highly sensitive to the cable position with respect to the test ground. The result will increase if the ECG device and cables are closer to test ground plane. This has been confirmed by experiment where a battery operated test sample without RL drive was shown to vary greatly with the sample and leads position with respect to ground plane, with both pass and fail results possible.

With the advent of wireless medical monitoring, there may be battery operated equipment intended for monitoring or diagnostic applications, together with inexperienced manufacturers that may not know the importance of the RL drive. Current standards (-2-25, -2-27) are not written well since they do not define what is done with the cable.

If a RL drive is not used, the above analysis indicates the intended use should be limited to being always worn on the patient and tested similar to IEC 60601-2-47. If the device has long cables and the recorder may be situated away from the patient, an RL drive should be used to avoid trouble.

For ambulatory equipment, the standard IEC 60601-2-47 specifies that the cable is wrapped in foil and connected to the common mode voltage, not the test ground. This is assumed to simulate the cable being close to the patient. This is expected to improve the result, as leakage will be much lower. The test voltage for ambulatory is also much smaller, at 2.8Vrms compared to 20Vrms. As such ambulatory equipment may pass without a RL drive.

External noise

In the actual CMRR test set up, the ECG electrodes are floating with around 10-15MΩ impedance to ground. This high impedance makes the circuit very susceptible to external noise, far more than normal ECG testing. The noise can interfere with the true CMRR result.  

Therefore for repeatable results, the test engineer must first set up to eliminate external noise as far as possible, and the test (verify) that there is no significant noise remaining.

To eliminate the noise the following steps should be taken:

  • Place the equipment under test (EUT), all cabling and the CMRR test equipment on an earthed metal bench or ground plane (recommended at least 1mm thick)
  • Connect the CMRR test equipment ground, EUT ground (if provided) and ground plane together and double check the connection using an ohm meter (should be <0.5Ω)
  • During the test, any people standing near the set up should touch the ground plane (this is an important step, as people make good aerials at 50/60Hz).

To check the set up has no significant noise:

  • Set up the equipment as normal, including the 20Vrms
  • Set RA lead with impedance (51k/47n), check normal CMRR indication appears (usually 3-8mm)
  • Turn the generator voltage off
  • Verify the indication on Lead I or Lead II is essentially a flat line at 10mm/mV. A small amount of noise is acceptable (e.g. 1mm) as long as the final result has some margin to the limit.

If noise is still apparent, a ground plane over the cables may also help reduce the noise. 

Typical Testing Results

Most indications for the 20V tests are in the range of 3-7mm. An indication that is lower or higher than this range may indicate there problem with the set up.

Indications are usually different for each lead which is expected due to the differences in the cable and trace layout in the test equipment, test set up and inside the equipment under test. Therefore, it is important to test all leads. 

The 300mVdc offset usually has no effect on the result. However, the equipment has to be properly designed to achieve this result - enough head room in the internal amplifiers. So it is again important to perform the test at least for representative number of leads.

If the test environment is noisy, there may be "beating" between the test signal frequency (which is usually pretty accurate) and real mains frequency, which is not so accurate. This can be eliminated by taking special precautions with grounding and shielding for the test area. Solid metal benches (with the bench connected to the test system ground) often make the best set up. 

And that 120dB CMRR claim? 

Some ECG manufacturers will claim up to 120dB CMRR, a specification which is dubious based on experience with real ECG systems. The requirement in standards that use the 10V test is effectively a limit of 89dB  (= 20 log (0.001 / (2√2 x 10)). A typical result is around 95dB. Although it might not seem much between 95dB and 120dB, in real numbers it is a factor of about 20. 

It is likely that the claim is made with no imbalance impedance - as the analysis above shows, the imbalance creates the common mode indication, and without this imbalance most floating measurement systems will have no problem to provide high CMRR. Even so, in real numbers 120dB is a ratio of a million to 1, which makes it rather hard to measure. So the claim is at best misleading (due to the lack of any imbalance) and dubious, due to the lack of measurement resolution. Another challenge for standards writers?     

IEC 60601-2-34 General information

The following information is transferred from the original MEDTEQ website, originally posted around 2009

This article provides some background for the design and test of IBP (Invasive Blood Pressure) monitoring function, as appropriate to assist in an evaluation to IEC 60601-2-34 (2000).

Key subjects include discussion on whether patient monitors can be tested using simulated signals, and how to deal with accuracy and frequency response tests.

Principle of operation


IBP sensors are a bridge type, usually adjusted to provide a sensitivity of 5µV/V/mmHg. This means the output changes by 5µV per 1 mmHg, for every 1V of supply. Since most sensors are supplies at 5V supply, this means they provide a nominal 25µV/mmHg. A step change of of 100mmHg, with a 5V supply, would provide an output of 2.5mV (5µV/V/mmHg x 5V x 100mmHg = 2.5mV).

The sensors are not perfectly linear, and start to display some significant "error" above 150mmHg. This error is typically around -1% to -2% at the extreme of 300mmHg (i.e. at full scale the output is slightly lower than expected). Some sensors have internal compensation for this error, and in many cases the manufacturers of patient monitors include some software compensation.

The sensors are temperature sensitive, although not greatly compared to the limits in IEC 60601-2-34. Tests indicate that over a temperature range of 15°C to 35°C the "zero drift" is typically less than 0.5mmHg, and gain variation less than 0.5%.

The sensors also exhibit variation of up to 0.3mmHg depending on orientation, so for accurate measurements they should be fixed on a plane.

Sensors well exceed the 10Hz frequency response limit in IEC 60601-2-34. Step response analysis (using a solenoid valve to release the pressure) found a rise time in the order to 1ms, and a frequency response of around 300-400Hz.

Equipment (patient monitor)

Most patient monitors use a nominal 5V supply to the sensor, but it is rarely exactly 5V. This does not influence the accuracy as most monitors use a ratio measurement, for example by making the supply to the sensor also the supply to the ADC (analogue to digital converter). When providing simulated signals (e.g. for performance testing of the monitor) the actual supply voltage should be measured and used for calculating the simulated signal. MEDTEQ's IBP simulator has a function to do this automatically.

The measurement circuit must be carefully designed as 1mmHg is only 25µV. A differential gain of around 300 is usually required to increase the voltage to a range suitable for ADC measurement, as well as a circuit to provide an offset which allows negative pressures to be measured. IBP systems always include a function to "zero" the sensor. This is required to eliminate residual offsets due to (a) the sensor, (b) measurement electronics and (c) the "head of water" in the fluid circuit. In practice, the head of water dominates this offset, since every 10cm of water represents around 7mmHg. Offsets associated with the sensor and electronics is usually <3mmHg.

Drift in offset and gain can be expected from electronic circuits, but assuming reasonable quality parts are used, the amount is negligible compared to the sensor. For example, between 15-35°C an AD620 differential amplifier (used in MEDTEQ's precision pressure measurement system) was found to have drift of less than 0.1mmHg, and a gain variation of less than 0.05%.

Because of the very low voltages involved, filtering and/or special sampling rates are often used to remove noise, particularly mains frequency noise (50/60Hz). This filtering and sampling is far more likely to impact the 10Hz frequency response requirement than the frequency response of the sensor.

Basics of pressure

The international unit of pressure is the Pascal, commonly seen as kPa or MPa, since 1Pa is a very small pressure. Due to the prior use of mercury columns to measure blood pressure, in medicine the use mmHg (millimeters of mercury) remains common for blood pressure. Many patient monitors can select either kPa or mmHg indication. The conversion between kPa and mmHg is not as straightforward as it might appear - whenever a liquid column is used to represent pressure (such as for mmHg), accurate conversion requires both temperature and gravity to be known. It turns out that "mmHg" commonly used in medicine is that at 0°C and "standard gravity".

The use of the 0°C figure rather than room temperature might be the result of convenience: at this temperature the relationship is almost exactly 1kPa = 7.5mmHg, within 0.01% of the precise figure (7.500615613mmHg/kPa). This means easy conversion, for example 40kPa = 300mmHg.

A water column can also be used as a highly accurate calibration source. To know the exact relationship between the height of water and pressure, you only need to know temperature to determine the density of water, and gravity at the site of measurement. After that, it is only a matter of using a simple relationship of P = gdh, although care is needed with units.

At 25°C, at Japan (Ise) the ratio for pure water to "standard" mmHg is 13.649mmH20/mmHg, or 136.5cm/100mmHg (contact MEDTEQ for more details on how to calculate this). Literature indicates that purity of the water is not critical and normal treated tap water in most modern cities will probably suffice. To be sure, pure or distilled water should be used, but efforts to find out just how pure the water would be overkill.

Testing to IEC 60601-2-34

IEC conumdrum: System test, or monitor only?

The IEC 60601 series has a major conflict with medical device regulations, in that they are written to test the whole system. In contrast, regulation supports the evaluation each component of a system as a seperate medical device. This reflects the practical reality of manufacturing and clinical use - many medical systems are constructed using parts from different manufacturers, where no individual manufacturer takes responsibility for the complete system, and patient safety is maintained through interface specifications.

The IBP function of a patient monitor is a good example of this, with specifications such as a sensitivity of 5µV/V/mmHg being industry standard. In addition, sensors are designed with high frequency response, and an insulation barrier to the fluid circuit. Together with the sensitivity, it allows the sensor to be used with a wide range of patient monitors (and the monitor with a wide range of sensors).

Thus, following the regulatory approach, standards should allow patient monitors and IBP sensors to be tested seperately. This would mean sensors are tested with true pressures, while patient monitors are tested with simulated signals, both using 5µV/V/mmHg interface specification. Accuracy and frequency response limits would be distributed to ensure an overall system specification is always met.

In fact, part of this approach already exists. In the USA, there is standard dedicated to IBP sensors (ANSI/AAMI BP 22), which has also largely been adopted for use in Japan (JIS T 3323:2008). This standard requires the accuracy of sensitivity to of ±1mmHg ±1% of reading up to 50mmHg, and ±3% of readings above 50 to 300mmHg. Among many tests, it also has tests for frequency response (200Hz), defibrillator protection and leakage current.

In principle, a sensor which complies with ANSI/AAMI BP 22 (herein referred to as BP 22) would be compatible with most patient monitors. Unfortunately, IEC has not followed up and the standard IEC 60601-2-34 is written for the system. Nevertheless, we can derive limits for accuracy for the patient monitor by using both standards:


Test point

IEC 60601-2-34 limit (mmHg)

BP 22 limit(mmHg)

Effective patient monitor limit (mmHg)

































There are a few minor complications with this approach: the first is that patient monitors usually only display a resolution of 1mmHg. Ideally for the accuracy test, the manufacturer would enable a special mode which displays 0.1mmHg resolution, or the simulator can be adjusted in 0.1mmHg sets to find the change point. Second is that simulated signals should be accurate to around 0.3mmHg, or 0.1% full scale; this requires special equipment (MEDTEQ's IBP simulator has a compensated DAC output to provide this accuracy). Finally, many monitors compensate for sensor non-linearity, typically reading high around 200-300mmHg. This compensation improves accuracy, but could be close to or exceed the limits in the table above. Since virtually all sensors exhibit negative errors at high pressure, BP 22 should really be adjusted to limit positive errors above 100mmHg (e.g. change from ±3% to +2%, -3%), which in turn would allow patient monitors to have a greater positive error (+2%, or +6mmHg at 300mmHg), when tested with simulated signals.

Testing by simulation

In principle all of the performance and alarm tests in IEC 60601-2-34 can be performed using a similator, which can be constructed using a digital function generator and a simple voltage divider to produce voltages in the range of around -1mV to +8mV. For the tests in the standard, a combination of dc offset and sine wave is required.A digital function generator is recommended to provide ease of settings and adjustment.

As discussed above, the simulator should have an accuracy equivalent to  ±0.3mmHg (±0.1% or ±7.5µV), which can be achieved by monitoring the output with a high accuracy digital mutlimeter. In addition, the output should be adjusted as appropriate for the actual sensor supply voltage; for example, if the sensor is 4.962V, the output should be based on 24.81µV/mmHg, not the nominal 25µV/mmHg.

MEDTEQ has developed a low cost IBP simulator which is designed specifically for testing to IEC 60601-2-34, and includes useful features such as automated measurement and adjustment for the supply voltage, and includes real biological waveforms as well as sine waves for more realistic testing .

Testing by real pressures

MEDTEQ has tested sensors against both IEC 60601-2-34 and ANSI/AAMI BP 22. For static pressures the test set up is only moderately complicated, with the main problem being creating stable pressures. For dynamic pressures, a system has been developed which provides a fast step change in pressure, to allow measurement of the sensor frequency response as described in BP 22 (although technical not using the 2Hz waveform required by the standard, the result is still the same). Test results normally show a response in excess of 300Hz (15% bandwidth).

Manufacturers have indicated that the mecahnical 10Hz set up required by IEC 60601-2-34 has severe complications, and practical set ups exhibit non-linearilty which affects the test result. Given that the sensors have demonstrated frequency response well above 200Hz, it is clear that patient monitors can be tested with a 10Hz simulated signal. Even for systems that can only be tested as a set, the test should be replaced by a step response test, which is simpler and more reproducable.     

51.102.1 Sensitivity, repeatability, non-linearity, drift and hysteresis

(to be completed)




IEC 60601-2-27 Update (2005 to 2011 edition)

In 2011, IEC 60601-2-27 was updated to fit with the 3rd edition (IEC 60601-1:2005). Most of the performance tests are the same, but the opportunity has been taken to tweak some tests and correct some of the errors in the old standard. The following table provides an overview of significant changes, based on a document review only. It is expected that after practical experience provide more detail on the changes can be provided.


Change compared to IEC 60601-2-27:2005


Resistors in the test networks and defibrillator tester set ups should be ±1% unless otherwise specified (previously ±2%)

Note: the MEDTEQ SECG system uses 0.5% resistors for the 51k and 620k resistors, and the precision divider (100k/100R) uses on 0.05% resistors.

New requirement: both ends of detachable lead wires shall use the same identifiers (e.g. color code).

Instructions for use: significant new requirements and rewording, each item should be re-verified for compliance.

Depletion of battery test:

-          technical alarm 5min before shutdown

-          shutdown in a safe manner

Essential performance tests, general:

51kΩ/47nF not required except for Neutral electrode (previously, required for each electrode).


Note: MEDTEQ SECG system includes relay switchable 51k/47n impedance, allowing compliance with both editions.


Some test method “errors” have been corrected:


-     Accuracy of signal reproduction: test starts at 100% and reduces to 10%, rather than starting at 10% and increasing to 10%;

-     Input dynamic range: input signal can be adjusted to 80% of full scale, rather than adjusting the sensitivity;

-     Multichannel cross talk: actual test signal connections and leads to be inspected are fully defined.

Frequency response test:

Mains (ac) filter should be off for the test.

Input noise test (30µVpp):

10 tests of 10s required, at least 9 must pass (previously only one test required).

Gain indicator

New test to verify the accuracy of the gain indicator (input 1mV signal input and verify same as the gain indicator).

CMRR test:

Must be performed at both 50Hz and 60Hz

Pacemaker indication tests:

Need to perform with all modes / filter settings

Pacemaker rejection (rate accuracy):

If pulse rejection disabled, indication is required



Pacemaker tests: the test circuit has been defined (Figure 201.114).


Note: this circuit is already implemented in MEDTEQ SECG equipment.

Synchronizing pulse for cardioversion (<35ms delay to SIP/SOP)

Test more detailed (more test conditions)

Heart rate accuracy:

New test @ 0.15mV (70-120ms), and also with QRS of 1mV 10ms, both cases no heart rate shall be indicated. 


Note: the most recent software for MEDTEQ SECG includes this function

Indications on display:

-          Filter settings

-          Selected leads

-          Gain indicator

-          Sweep speed

Indication of battery operation and status required




-          Greatly modified, needs full re-check

-          IEC 60601-1-8 needs to be applied in full

-          Distributed alarm systems: disconnection should

o   Make technical alarm at both sides

o   Turn on audible alarms in the patient monitor




ECG Filters

ECG filters can have a substantial effect on the test results in IEC 60601-2-25, IEC 60601-2-27 and IEC 60601-2-47. In some clauses the standard indicates which filter(s) to use, but in most cases, the filter setting is not specified. One option is to test all filters, but this can be time consuming. Also, it is not unusual to find that some tests fail with specific filter settings. This section is intended to give some background on the filters and the effect of filters, so test engineers can decide which filter settings are appropriate.

Most test engineers covered filters at some point in their education, but that knowledge may have become rusty over time, so the following includes some information to brush up on filter theory while heading into the specifics of ECG filters.

Section 1: The technology behind filters

What is a filter?

In general, filters try to remove unwanted noise. Especially in ECG work, the signal levels are very small (around 1mV), so it is necessary to use filtering to remove a wide range of noise. This noise may come from an unstable dc offset from electrode/body interface, muscle noise, mains hum (50/60Hz), electrical noise from equipment in the environment and from within the ECG equipment itself, such as from internal dc/dc converters.

A filter works by removing or reducing frequencies where noise occurs, while allowing the signal frequency through. This can be done in either hardware or software. In modern systems, the main purpose of hardware filtering is to avoid exceeding the limits of the analogue system, such as opamp saturation and ADC ranges. Normally a 1mV signal would be amplified around 100-1000 times prior to ADC sampling, if this signal had even 10mV of noise prior to amplification, we can expect amplifiers to saturate. The main limitation of hardware filters is that they rely on capacitors, the value of which cannot be controlled well both in production and in normal use. Thus software filtering is usually relied on for filter cut-off points that can be controlled accurately, allowing also advanced filter models and user selected filters to be implemented. 

What are typical types of ECG filtering? Why are there different filters?

Ideally, a filter should remove noise without affecting the signal we are interested in. Unfortunately, this is rarely possible. One reason is that the signal and noise may share the same frequencies. Mains noise (50/60Hz), muscle noise and drift in dc offsets due to patient movement all fall in the same frequency range as a typical ECG. Another problem is that practical filters normally don't have a sharp edge between the "pass" band and the "cut" band. Rather there is usually a slow transition in the filters response, so if the wanted and unwanted signals are close we may not be able to remove the noise without removing some of the desired signal.

The result is that filters inevitably distort the signal frequency. The image right shows the distortion of the ANE20002 waveform from IEC 60601-2-25 with a typical "monitor" filter from 0.67Hz to 40Hz. A balance has to be found between removing noise and preserving the original signal. For different purposes (monitoring, intensive care, diagnostic, ambulatory, ST segment monitoring etc) the balance shifts, so we end up with a range of filters adjusted to get the best balance. Some common examples of ECG filters are:

Diagnostic:   0.05Hz ~ 150Hz    
Widest for diagnostic information, assumes a motionless, low noise environment

Ambulatory, patient monitoring:    0.67Hz ~ 40Hz 
Mild filtering for noisy environment, principally to detect the heart rate

ST segment:  0.05Hz ~    
Special extended low frequency response for ST segment monitoring (more detail below)

Muscle, ESU noise:   ~ 15Hz   
Reduced higher frequency response to eliminate muscle noise and other interference such as ESUs

While ECGs could be referred to as using a band pass filter, the upper and lower frequencies of the pass band are sufficiently apart that we can discuss them seperately as low pass and high pass filters.

What is a low pass filter? What distortion is caused by low pass filtering?

A low pass filter is often found in electronic circuits, and works by reducing high frequency components. The most common form of a hardware low pass filter is a simple series resistor / capacitor: at low frequencies the capacitor is high impedance relative to the resistor, but as the frequency increases the capacitor impedance drops and output falls. A circuit with only one resistor/capacitor is a "single pole filter". Due to origins in audio work and similar fields, filters are normally specified by the frequency at which there is a "3dB reduction", or where the output voltage is around 71% (0.707) of the input. While this may sound large, in the audio field the dynamic range is so large that a log scales are required, and on this scale 3dB reduction (30%) is not so big. For a large dynamic range, units of decibels (dB) are more convenient. Decibels originated in power, using simple scale of 10 log10(Pout / Pin). In electronics, measurement of voltage is more common, thus we end up with 20 log10(Vout / Vin). The factor of 20 rather than 10 reflects the square relationship between voltage and power, which in the log world is an additional factor of 2.    

The use of log scales can be misleading. Graphically in the log/log scale, the output of a single pole filter is basically 1:1 (100%) in the "pass band", and then drops of steeply as the frequency increases, quickly reaching levels of 1% (0.01) and lower.  

However, if we look at a graph using a normal scale (non-log), we see that around the frequency of interest, the cut of is actually pretty slow. For example, for a 40Hz filter, at 20Hz there will still be more than 10% reduction, and at 100Hz, still 37% of the signal is getting through. When testing an ECG's filter response and other characteristics, is it common to see effects due to filters above and below the cut off frequencies.

In software, filters can be used which closely approximate hardware filters, but other complex forms are possible. Sharper cut off between the pass band and cut band can also be achieved. Great care is needed with software filters as unexpected results can easily occur due to the interplay between sampling rates and the chosen methodology.  

The distortion caused by a hardware (or equivalent software) single pole low pass filter is easy to visualise: it essentially dampens and slows the waveform, much like suspension in a car. The following graph shows the effect of a 40Hz monitoring filter on 100ms rectangle and triangle pulses. For the triangle it is interesting to note that there is about a 5% reduction in the peak measured, and also a small delay of around 3ms.

What is a high pass filter? What are the effects?

High pass filters are obviously the opposite of a low pass filters. In hardware, a single pole filter can be made out of a capacitor in series with a resistor. The corner frequency is the same, and the frequency response is a mirror image (vertical flip) of the low pass filter.

The terminology associated with ECG high pass filters can be confusing: while the filter is correctly termed a "high pass filter", it affects the low frequency response, around the 0.05Hz to 1Hz region. So it is easy to get mixed up between "high" and "low".

The main intention of a high pass filter in ECG work is to remove the dc offset which in turn is largely caused by the electrode/gel/body interface. Unstable voltages of up to 300mVdc can be produced. In diagnostic work, the patient can be asked to stay still so as to reduce these effects, allowing the filter corner to be reduced down to 0.05Hz. For monitoring and ambulatory use, a 0.67Hz corner is common.

For long term periodic waveforms the main effect is to shift or keep the waveform around the centerline, known as the "baseline" in ECG. This is the same as using the AC mode on an oscilloscope to view only ac noise of 50mVpp on a 5Vdc supply rail. Most test engineers have little problem to understand this side of high pass filters.  

However, for short term pulses, the effects of high pass filters on waveforms are not so easy to visualise. In particular, it is possible to get negative voltages out of a positive pulse waveform, and also peak to peak values exceeding the input. These effects cannot occur with a low pass filter. The hardware filter circuit shown just above, together with the graph below can help to understand why this happens. Initially the capacitor has no charge, so that when a step change (1V) is applied, the full step is transferred to the output. Then the capacitor slowly charges according to the circuit's time constant. For a filter with 0.67Hz, after 100ms, the capcitor is charged to around 0.34V. When the input suddenly drops to 0V, the capacitor remains charged at 0.34V, but the polarity is negative with respect to Vout. The output voltage is Vout = Vin - Vc = 0 - 0.34 = -0.34V. As long as the input remains at 0V, the capcitor then slowly discharges back towards 0V. In this way we can get negative voltages from a positive pulse, a peak to peak voltage of 1.34V (exceeding the input), and finally long slow time constants resulting from short impulses.  

This long time constant can cause problems in viewing the ECG trace after large overloads, such as during defibrillator pulses or a temporary disconnected lead. A 0.67Hz high pass filter has a 0.25s time constant, which although is short can still take time since the overloads are in the 1V level, 1000 times higher than normal signals. For these reasons, ECGs are often provided with "baseline reset" or "de-blocking" function to reset the high pass filter. Typically this is an automated function which in hardware filtercan be done by shorting the capacitor (e.g. analogue or FET switch), or in software filters is simply clearing a result back to zero. 

Diagnostic filters and other filters that go down to 0.05Hz have a much slower time constant, so it can take 10-15s for the signal to become visible again. Even after an automated baseline reset there may be residual offsets of 5-50mV which keep the signal off the screen. This can be a serious risk if such filters are used in intensive care patient monitoring. Patient monitors are often provided with both diagnostic and monitoring filters, and while they pass defibrillator and 1V 50/60Hz overload tests with the monitoring filter, they fail when tested with a diagnostic filter setting. This is a subject which can cause conflict as the standard does not define which filter to use, and manufacturers often argue that only the monitor filter should be tested. However, basic risk management indicates that regardless of the filter setting, the baseline reset should work effectively. It is fairly obvious that such a filters with 0.05Hz would not be selected for defibrillation, however, it is also unlikely that if the patient monitor was already set to diagnostic mode prior to an emergency situation , we cannot reasonably expect the operator to remember or have the time to mess around changing filter settings. Also, the technology to detect and reset the baseline after overloads is well established.

ST filters are also common in patient monitoring and create a similar problem. The purpose of the filter is to preserve the "ST segment" which occurs between the QRS pulse and T wave and can be an important diagnostic indicator. The following graph shows how normal monitoring ECG high pass filter of 0.67Hz on the CAL20160 waveform from IEC 60601-2-25 (+0.2mV elevated ST segment) essentially removes the ST segment:

If we reduce the low frequency response (high pass filter) down to 0.05Hz, we can see that the ST segment remains largely undistorted, allowing diagnostic information to be retained:

Notch filters (mains hum filters, AC filter, 50/60Hz)

Notch filters combine both high and low pass filters to create a small region of frequencies to be removed. For ECGs, the main target is to remove 50Hz or 60Hz noise. Because mains noise falls in the region of interest (especially for diagnostic ECGs), the setting of "AC filter" is usually optional. ECG equipment already contains some ability to reject mains noise even without a filter (see right leg drive) so depending on the amount of AC noise in the environment, an AC filter may not be required. A good check of your ECG testing location is to compare the signals with and without the AC filter on.

Some systems automatically detect the mains frequency, others are set by the user or service personnel, while others use a single notch filter covering both 50/60Hz.

High "quality" notch filters can be created in software that target only 50 or 60Hz, but the drawback of these filters is they can create unusual ringing especially to waveforms with high rates of change. IEC 60601-2-51 has a special waveform (ANE20000) which confirms that the extent of ringing is within reasonable limits.

Similar to the diagnostic filter, the question again arises as to whether patient monitors should pass tests with or without the AC filter. In particular this causes problems with the 40Hz high frequency response requirement, as some systems may fail this response with a 50Hz AC filter on. There is no simple answer for this: 40Hz and 50Hz are very close, so to comply with the 40Hz requirement with a 50Hz notch filter implies advanced multipole filtering. But multipole filters have risks of distortion such as ringing. On the other hand, use of AC filters can be considered "normal condition", so to argue that a test is not required with the AC filter on implies that the 40Hz frequency response is not really important, which would raise the question what upper frequency response is important. ANSI/AAMI (US) standards have an upper limit of 30Hz for patient monitors, which also complicates the situation.

Ultimately, the final decision would require a careful study of the effects of the AC filters on waveforms found in real clinical situations, which also depends in the intended purpose. In particular neonatal waveforms are likely to have higher frequency components, so the high frequency response including AC filters will have the greatest impact only if neonatal patients are included in the intended purpose. The following images show the effects of 40Hz and 30Hz single pole filters on IEC 60601-2-51 waveform CAL20502 (intended to simulate neonatal ECGs). As the images show, the effects are not insignificant. Both filters reduce the peak to peak indication, with the 30Hz filter around 20%, which may be exceeding reasonable limits. However, of course these are single pole filter simulations, which would not relfect the response of more complex filter systems.  

Notes on advanced filtering

The simulations above are based on simple single pole filters, which distort the signal in predictable ways and are easy to simulate. Complex multipole and digital filters can have far better responses but there are risks of substantial overshoots and ringing. Experience from testing indicates that manufacturers tend to prefer simple filters, but occasionally use more complex filters where strange results in testing are possible. These results may or may not representative of the real world because the test signals often contain frequencies that don't exist in the real world, such as small digital steps caused by arbitrary waveform generators, or rectangle pulses with excessively fast rise times. This needs to be kept in mind during testing and discussed with the manufacturer.

Section 2: Particular requirements from standards affected by filters

Sensitivity, accuracy of leads, accuracy of screen and printing, similar tests

For tests involving sensitivity (e.g. confirming 10mm/mV within ±5%) and accuracy of lead calculations (such as Lead I = RA - LA), it makes sense to use diagnostic filter with the AC filter off. The nature of these tests is such that filters should not impact the result, with the effects of filters being handled seperately. The widest frequency response ensures that the waveforms viewed on the screen are essentially the same as the input waveforms, avoiding some complications due to waveform distortion which are irrelevant to the tests. This assumes that the test environment is sufficiently "quiet" so that mains and other noise does not also influence the result.

Common Mode Rejection Ratio

As IEC standards point out, the CMRR test should be performed with the AC filter off, if necessary by special software. If avaliable, a patient monitor should be tested using the widest (diagnostic) filter mode, which is worst case compared to monitor mode. One point to note is that ANSI/AAMI standards (at least, earlier editions) do not require the AC filter to be off, a key difference to the tests in IEC standards.

Input impedance test

Due to the high imbalance in one lead (620k/4.7nF), the input impedance test is particularily susceptable to mains noise. Since this is a ratiometric test, the filter setting should not affect the result. If possible, the user should select the mains notch filter to be on, and use the monitoring mode. Other filter settings (like muscle, ESU) might reduce the noise further, but they may also make it difficult to measure at 40Hz  as the signal will be substantially attenuated. 

Frequency response test

For frequency response tests, including the 200ms/20ms triangle impulse test, obviously all filters should be tested individually. However, there may be discussions as indicated above as to whether compliance is necessary for all settings, which in turn may be based on clinical discusssion. For example, it is obvious that special filters in highly noisy environments (e.g. muscle, ESU) may not meet the 40Hz high frequency response requirment from IEC 60601-2-27. Test labs should simply report the results. For regulatory purposes, manufacturers should discuss the clinical impact where appropraite. For example, a muscle filter with a cut off of 15Hz seems clearly inappropriate for use with neonates. 

For IEC 60601-2-27 (0.67Hz to 40Hz), practical tests found that some manufacturers follow the normal practice in frequency response testing of using the input as the reference. For example setting the input to exactly 1mVpp (10mm) and then measuring the output. While this is logical, the standard requires that the output at 5Hz is used as the reference point. In some cases, the 5Hz output can be significantly higher than the input as the result of multipole filters, leading to differences between manufacturer test results in independent laboratory test results.

For IEC 60601-2-25, frequency sweeps up to 500Hz using digital based systems usually finds some point where beating occurs, as a result of the sample rate of the digital function genorator being is a multiple or near multiple of the ECG's sampling rate. For this reason, it is always useful to have a back up analogue style function genorator on hand to verify the frequency response.

Pacemaker indication

Most modern ECGs use a blanking approach to pacemaker pulses: automatic detection of the fast edge of the pacing spike, ignoring the data around the pulse and then replacing the pulse with an artificial indication on the ECG screen or record. If this approach is taken, the filter settings usually do not affect the test results. However, some systems allow the pulse through to the display. In this case, the filter settings can dramatically affect the result. Consult the operation manual prior to the test to see if any special settings are necessary for compliance.  

Low frequency impulse response test (3mV 100ms)

The low frequency impulse response test is only intended where the frequency response extends down to 0.05Hz. For patient monitors and ambulatory ECGs, this will typically only apply for special settings such as diagnostic filters or ST-segment analysis. There appears to be an error in IEC 60601-2-47 since it requires the test for all modes, but it is obvious that filters that do not extend down to 0.05Hz cannot pass the test.

Simulations with a single pole filter 0.05Hz have found that the results just pass the tests in IEC 60601-2-27 and IEC 60601-2-47, with an overshoot of 93uV and a slope of 291uV/s, compared to the limits of 100uV and 300uV/s in the standards. It appears that IEC 60601-2-51 cannot be met with a single pole filter, as it has a slope requirement of 250uV/s. The rationale in the standard indicates that this is intentional. It is very difficult if not impossible to confirm compliance based on inspection of print outs as the values are very small, so it may require digital simulations and assistance from the manufacturer, with the full system test (analogue signal through to the printout) being used only for confirmation. The following graphs show simulated responses for 0.05Hz single pole filter, both overall and a close up of the overshoot

 Any questions or comments, please feel free to contact




IEC 60601-2-25 Clause - Goldberger and Wilson LEADS

In a major change from the previous edition (IEC 60601-2-51:2003), this standard tests the Goldberger and Wilson LEAD network using CAL waveforms only. There are some concerns with the standard which are outlined below: 

  • the standard does not indicate if the tests must be performed by analogue means, or if optionally digital tests are allowed as indicated in other parts of the standard. It makes sense to apply the test in analogue, as there is no other test in the standard which verifies the basic accuracy of sensitivity for the complete system (analogue and digital).
  • The CAL (and ANE) signals are designed in a way that RA is the reference ground (in the simulation data, RA is always zero; in the circuit recommended in IEC 60601-2-51, RA is actually connected to ground). This means that an error on RA cannot be detected by CAL or ANE signals. The previous standard was careful to test all leads individually, including cases where a signal is provided only to RA (other leads are grounded), ensuring errors on any individual lead would be detected. 
  • The allowable limit is 10%. This is a relaxation from IEC 60601-2-51, conflicts with the requirement statement in Clause and also requirements for voltage measurements in Clause, all of which use 5%. Furthermore, many EMC tests refer to using CAL waveforms with the criteria from Clause (5%), not the 10% which comes from this clause.  

A limit of 5% makes sense for diagnostic ECGs and is not difficult with modern electronics and historically has not been an issue. There is no explanation where the 10% comes; at a guess the writers may have trying to separate basic measurement sensitivity (5%) from the network accuracy (5%). In practice, it makes little sense to separate these out as ECGs don't provide access to the raw data from each lead electrode, only the final result which includes both the sensitivity and the network. As such we can only evaluate the complete system based on inputs (lead electrodes, LA, LL, RA etc) and outputs (displayed LEAD I, II, III etc).  

As mentioned above, there is no other test in IEC 60601-2-25 which verifies the basic sensitivity of the ECG. Although sensitivity errors may become apparent in other tests, it makes sense to establish this first as a system, including the weighting network, before proceeding with other tests. While modern ECGs, from quality manufacturers and designed specifically for for diagnostic work generally have little problem for 5%, experience indicates that lower quality manufacturers and in particular multipurpose devices (e.g. patient monitor with diagnostic functions) can struggle to meet basic accuracy requirement for sensitivity. 

IEC 60601-2-25 Clause Indication of Inoperable ECG

This test is important but has a number of problems in implementation. To understand the issue and solution clearly, the situation is discussed in three stages - the ECG design aspect the standard is trying to confirm; the problems with the test in the standard; and finally a proposed solution. 

The ECG design issue

Virtually all ECGs will apply some opamp gain prior to the high pass filter which removes the dc offset. This gain stage has the possibility to saturate with high dc levels. The point of saturation varies greatly with each manufacturer, but is usually in the range of 350 - 1000mV. At the patient side a high dc offset is usually caused by poor contact at the electrode site, ranging from an electrode that is completely disconnected through to other issues such as an old gel electrode. 

Most ECGs detect when the signal is close to saturation and trigger a "Leads off" or "Check electrodes" message to the operator. Individual detection needs to be applied to each lead electrode, and both positive and negative voltages, this means that there are up to 18 different points (LA, RA, LL, V1 - V6). Due to component tolerances, the points of detection in each lead often vary by around 20mV  (e.g. LA points might be +635mV, -620mV, V3 might be +631mV, -617mV etc). 

If the signal is completely saturated it will appear as a flat-line on the ECG display. However, there is a small region where the signal is visible, but distorted (see Figure 1). Good design ensures the detection occurs prior to any saturation. Many ECGs automatically show a flat line once the "Leads Off" message is indicated, to avoid displaying a distorted signal. 

Problems with the standard

The first problem is the use of a large ±5V offset. This is a conflict with the standard as Clause states that ECGs only need to withstand up to ±0.5V without damage. Modern ECGs use ±3V or less for the internal amplifiers, and applying ±5V could unnecessarily damage the ECG. 

This concern also applies to the test equipment (Figure 201.106). If care is not taken, the 5V can easily damage the precision 0.1% resistors in the output divider and internal DC offset components.  

Next, the standard specifies that the voltage is applied in 1V steps. This means it is possible to pass the test even though equipment fails the requirement. For example an ECG may start to distort at +500mV, flatline by +550mV, but the designer accidentally sets the "Leads Off" signal at +600mV. In the region of 500-550mV this design can display a distorted signal without any indication, and from 550-600mV is confusing to the operator why a flat line appears. If tested with 1V steps these problem regions would not be detected and a Pass result would be recorded. 

Finally the standard allows distortion up to 50% (a 1mV signal compressed to 0.5mV). This is a huge amount of distortion and there no technical justification to allow this given the technology is simple to ensure a "Leads Off" message appears well before any distortion. The standard should simply keep the same limits for normal sensitivity (±5%).


In practice, it is recommended that a test engineer start at 300mV offset and search for the point where the message appears, reduce the offset until the message is cleared, and then slowly increase again up to the point of message while confirming that no visible distortion occurs (see Figure 2). The test should be performed in both positive and negative directions, and on each lead electrode (RA, LA, LL, V1 to V6). The dc offset function in the Whaleteq SECG makes this test easy to perform (test range up to ±1000mV), but the test is also simple enough that an ad-hoc set up is easily prepared.  

Due to the high number of tests, it might be temping to skip some leads on the basis that some are representative. Unfortunately, experience indicates that manufacturers sometimes deliberately or accidentally miss some points on some leads, or set the operating point to the wrong level, such that distortion is visible prior to the message appearing. As such it is recommended that all lead electrodes are checked. Test engineers can opt for a simple OK/NG record, with the operating points on at least one lead kept for reference. Detailed data on the other leads might be kept only if they are significantly different. For example, some ECGs have very different trigger points for chest leads (V1 - V6). 

Due to the nature of electronics, any detectable distortion prior to the "Leads Off" message should be treated with concern, since the point of op-amp saturation is variable. For example one ECG may have 10% distortion at +630mV while sample might have 35% distortion. Since some limit should apply (it is impossible to detect "no distortion") It is recommended to use a limit of ±5% relative to a reference measurement taken with no dc offset. 

The right leg

The right leg is excluded from the above discussion: in reality the right leg is the source of dc offset voltage - it provides feedback and attempts to cancel both ac and dc offsets; an open lead or poor electrode causes this feeback to drift towards the internal rail voltage (typically 3V in modern systems). This feedback is via a large resistor (typically 1MΩ) so there is no risk of damage (hint to standards committees - if 5V is really required, it should be via a large resistor).

More research is needed on the possibility, effects and test methods for RL. It is likely that high dc offsets impact CMRR, since if the RL drive is pushed close to rail voltage, it will feedback a distorted signal preventing proper noise cancellation. At this time, Figure 201.106 is not set up to allow investigation of an offset to RL while providing signals to other electrodes which is necessary to detect distortion. For now, the recommendation is to test RL to confirm that at least an indication is provided, without confirming distortion.

Figure 1: With dc offset, the signal is at first completely unaffected, before a region of progressive distortion is reached finally ending in flat line on the ECG display. Good design ensures the indication to the operator (e.g. "LEADS OFF") appears well before any distortion

Figure 2: The large steps in the standard fail to verify that the indication to the operator appears before any distortion. Values up to 5V can also be destructive for the ECG under test and test equipment. 

Figure 3; Recommended test method; search for the point when the message is displayed, reduce until message disappears, slowly increase again check no distortion up to the message indication. Repeat for each lead electrode and both + and - direction.

IEC 60601-2-25 Clause Defibrillator Protection

General information on defibrillator testing can be found in this 2009 article copied from the original MEDTEQ website.

One of the significant changes triggered by the IEC 60601-2-25 2011 edition is the inclusion of the defibrillator proof energy reduction test via the general standard (for patient monitors, this test already existed via IEC 60601-2-49). Previously, diagnostic ECGs tended to use fairly low impedance contact to the patient, which helps to improve performance aspects such as noise. The impact of the change is that all ECGs will require higher resistors in series with each lead, as detailed in the above article. The higher resistors should trigger retesting for general performance, at least for a spot check.

Experience from real tests has found that with the normal diagnostic filter (0.05Hz to 150Hz), the baseline can take over 10s to return, exceeding the limit in the standard. Although most systems have automated baseline reset (in effect, shorting the capacitor in an analogue high pass filter, or the digital equivalent), the transients that occur after the main defibrillator pulse can make this difficult for the system to know when the baseline is sufficiently stable to perform a reset.  The high voltage capacitor used for the main defibrillator pulse is likely to have a memory effect causing significant and unpredictable baseline drift well after the main pulse. If a reset occurs during this time, the baseline can easily drift off the screen, and due to the long time constant of the 0.05Hz filter, can take 15-20s to recover. 

The usual workaround is that most manufacturers declare in the operation manual that during defibrillation special filters should be used (e.g. 0.67Hz). The issue raises the question of why diagnostic ECGs need to have defibrillator protection, and if so, how this is handled in practice. If defibrillator protection is really necessary, sensible solutions may involve the system automatically detecting a major overload and switching to a different filter for a short period (e.g. for 30s). It is after all an emergency situation: expecting the operator to have read, understand and remember a line from the operation manual, and as well have the time and presence of mind to work through touch screen menu system to enable a different filter setting while at the same time performing defibrillation on the patient is a little bit of a stretch. 

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IEC 60601-2-25 CSE database - test experience

The standard IEC 60601-2-25:2011 includes tests to verify the accuracy of interval and duration measurements, such as QRS duration or the P-Q interval.

These tests are separated into the artificial waveforms (the CTS database) and the biological waveforms (the CSE database). The CSE database is available on CD-ROM and must be purchased from the INSERM (price $1500, contact Paul Rubel,[1].

In principle, the database tests required by IEC 60601-2-25:2011 should be simple: play the waveform (in digital or analogue form), compare the data from the equipment under test to the reference data. In practice, there are some considerations and complications. This document covers some of the issues associated with the CSE database.  

First, it should be confirmed that the equipment under test actually measures and displays global intervals, rather than intervals for a specific lead. As stated in Annex FF.2 of the standard:

“The global duration of P, QRS and T are physiologically defined by the earliest onset in one LEAD and the latest offset in any other LEAD (wave onset and offset do not necessarily appear at the same time in all LEADS because the activation wavefronts propagate differently).”

Global intervals can be significantly different to lead intervals. This becomes evident from the first record of the database (#001), where the reference for the QRS duration is 127ms, while the QRS on LEAD I is visibly around 100ms. The following image is from the original “CSE Multilead ATLAS” analysis for recording #001 shows why: the QRS onset for Lead III (identified with the line and sample number 139) starts much earlier than for Lead I.

If the equipment under test does not display global intervals, it is not required to test using the CSE database to comply with IEC 60601-2-25.

The next aspect to be considered is whether to use waveforms from the MO1 or MA1 series.

The MO1 series is the original recording, and contains 10s with multiple heart beats. Each heart beat is slightly different, and the reference values are taken only for a specific heart beat (generally the 3rd or 4th beat in the recording). The beat used for analysis can be found from the sample number in the file “MRESULT.xls” on the CD-ROM[2]. The MO1 recordings are intended for manufacturers using the software (digital) route for testing their measurement algorithms. Many ECGs perform the analysis by averaging the results from several beats, raising a potential conflict with the standard since the reference values are for a single beat only. It is likely that the beat to beat variations are small and statistically insignificant in the overall analysis, as the limits in the standard are generous. However manufacturers investigating differences in their results and the reference values may want to check other beats in the recording.

The MO1 files can played in analogue form but there are two disadvantages: one is to align the equipment under test with the reference beat, the second is looping discontinuities. For example Record 001 stops in the middle of a T-wave, and Lead V1 has a large baseline drift. If the files are looped there will be a large transient and the potential for two beats to appear together; the ECG under test will have trouble to clear the transient events while attempting to analyze the waveforms. If the files are not looped, the ECG under test may still have trouble: many devices take around 5s to adjust to a new recording, by which time the reference beat has already passed.

The MA1 series overcomes these problems by isolating the selected beat in the MO1 recording, slightly modifying the end to avoid transients, and then stitching the beats together to make a continuous recording of 10 beats. The following image superimposes the MA1 series (red) on top of the MO1 series (purple) for the 4th beat on Lead I. The images are identical except for a slight adjustment at the end of the beat to avoid the transient between beats:

 The MA1 series is suitable for analogue and digital analysis. Unlike MO1 files which are fixed at 10.0s, the MA1 files contain 10 whole heart beats, so the length of the file varies depending on the heart rate. For example, record # 001 has a heart rate around 63bpm, so the file is 9.5s long. Record 053 is faster at 99bpm, so the file is only 6s long. As the file contains whole heart beats, the file can be looped to allow continuous play without limit. There is no need to synchronize the ECG under test, since every beat is the same and the beat is always the reference beat.

The only drawback of the MA1 series is the effect of noise, clearly visible in the above original recording. In a real recording, the noise would be different for each beat, and helps to cancel out errors if averaging is used. For manual analysis (human), the noise is less of a concern as we can visually inspect all leads simultaneously, from this we can generally figure out the global onset even in the presence of noise. Software usually looks at each lead individually and can be easily tricked by the noise. This is one reason why ECGs often average over several beats. Such averaging may not be effective for the MA1 series since the noise on every beat is the same.

Finally, it should be noted that the CSE database contains a large volume of information much of which is irrelevant for testing to IEC 60601-2-25. Sorting through this information can be difficult. Some manufacturers and test labs, for example, have been confused by the file “MRESULTS.xls” and attempted to use the reference data directly. 

In actual case, file “MRESULTS.xls” does not contain the final reference values used in IEC tests. They can be calculated from the raw values (by selective averaging), but to avoid errors it is best to use the official data directly.

Most recent versions of the CD-ROM should contain a summary of the official reference values in three files (all files have the same data, just difference file format):

  • IEC Biological ECGs reference values.pdf
  • IEC Biological ECGs reference values.doc
  • CSE_Multilead_Library_Interval_Measurements_Reference_Values.xls

If these files were not provided in the CD-ROM, contact Paul Rubel (

[1] The CSE database MA1 series are embedded in the MEDTEQ/Whaleteq MECG software, and can be played directly without purchasing the CD-ROM. However the CD-ROM is required to access the official reference values.

[2] For record #001, the sample range in MRECORD.xls covers two beats (3rd and 4th). The correct beat is the 4th beat, as shown in the original ATLAS records, and corresponds to the selected beat for MA1 use.

IEC 60601-2-25 Overview of CTS, CSE databases

All ECG databases have two discrete aspects: the digital waveform data, and the reference data. The waveform data is presented to the ECG under test, in either analogue or digital form (as allowed by the standard), and the ECG under test interprets the waveform data to create measured data. This measured data is then compared against the reference data to judge how well the ECG performs. These two aspects (waveform data, reference data) need to be considered separately. This article covers the databases used in IEC 60601-2-25.  

CTS Database

The CTS database consists of artificial waveforms used to test for automated amplitude and interval measurements. It is important to note that the standard only applies to measurements that the ECG makes: if no measurements are made, no requirement applies; if only the amplitude of the S wave in V2 is measured, or duration of the QRS of Lead II, that is all that needs to be tested. In the 2011 edition the CTS database is also used for selected performance tests, some of which needs to be applied in analogue form. 

All the CAL waveforms are identical for Lead I, Lead II, V1 to V6, with Lead III a flatline, aVR inverted and aVL, aVF both half amplitude, as can be predicted from the ECG Leads relationship. The ANE waveforms are more realistic, with all leads having similar but different waveforms. A key point to note with the ANE20000 waveform is the large S amplitude in V2, which usually triggers high ringing in high order mains frequency filters - more on that on another page.  

The CTS waveform data is somewhat of a mystery. in 2009 MEDTEQ successfully bought the waveforms from Biosigna for €400, but that organisation is now defunct (the current entity bears no relation). The standard states that the waveforms are part of the CSE database and available from INSERM, but this information is incorrect, INSERM is responsible for CSE only. According to Paul Rubel (INSERM), the CTS database was bought by Corscience, but their website contains no reference to the CTS database, nor where or how to buy it.  

Adding to the mystery, In the 2005 edition of IEC 60601-2-25 the CTS reference data was mentioned in the normative text but completely missing in the actual appendixes. The 2011 edition finally added the data but there are notable errors. Most of the errors are easily detected since they don't follow the lead definitions (for example, data for Lead I, II and III is provided, and this must follow the relation Lead III = Lead II - Lead I, but some of the data does not),  

Almost certainly, the situation is affected by a moderately wide group of individuals associated with the big manufacturers that are "in the know" and informally share both the waveform and reference data with others that are also "in the know" - otherwise it seems odd that the errors and omissions would persist. Those of us outside the the group are left guessing. The situation is probably illegal in some countries - standards and regulations are public property and the ability to verify compliance should not involve secret knocks and winks. 

The good news is that thanks to Biosigna, MEDTEQ and now Whaleteq has the CTS database embedded in the MECG software. And the reference data is now in the standard. This provides at least one path for determining compliance. We are not permitted to release the digital data. 

The experience from actual amplitude tests has been good. Most modern ECGs (software and hardware) are fairly good at picking out the amplitudes of the input waveform and reporting these accurately and with high repeatability. Errors can be quickly determined to be either:

  • mistakes in the reference data (which are generally obvious on inspection, and can be double checked against the displayed waveforms in MECG software);
  • due to differences in definitions between the ECG under test and those used in the standard;
  • due to the unrealistic nature of the test waveforms (for example, CAL50000 with a QRS of 10mVpp still retains a P wave of just 150µV); or
  • an actual error in the ECG under test  

For CTS interval measurements, results are mixed. Intervals are much more difficult for the software as you need to define what is a corner or edge (by comparison, peak is peak, it does not need a separate definition). Add a touch of noise, and the whole interval measurement gets messy. Which is probably why the standard uses statistical analysis (mean, deviation) rather than focusing on any individual measurement. Due to the statistical basis, the recommendation here is to do the full analysis first before worrying about any individual results. 

CSE Database

For the CTS database, the standard is actually correct to refer to INSERM to obtain both the waveform and reference data. The best contact is Paul Rubel ( Unlike CTS, the CSE database uses waveforms from real people and real doctors were involved in measuring the reference data. As such it is reasonable to pay the US$1500 which INSERM requests for both the waveforms and reference data,

The MECG software already includes the CSE database waveforms, output in analogue form, as allowed  under the agreement with Biosigna. However it is still necessary to buy the database from INSERM to access the digital data and reference data.

More information and experience on the CSE database is provided in this 2014 article.

IEC 60601-2-25 Update Guide (2005 to 2011 edition)

For the second edition of this standard, IEC 60601-2-25 and IEC 60601-2-51 were combined and re-published as IEC 60601-2-25:2011 (Edition 2.0).

The standard has of course been updated to fit with IEC 60601-1:2005 (the 3rd edition). Also, similar to IEC 60601-2-27, the opportunity has been taken to correct some of the errors in requirements and test methods for performance tests that existed in the previous edition. However, compared to the update of IEC 60601-2-27, the changes are far more extensive making it difficult to apply the new standard in a gap analysis approach. Experience also indicates that historical data for existing equipment is often of limited quality, so it may anyhow be an excellent opportunity to do a full re-test against the new standard.

Despite the updated tests, it seems that significant errors still persist, which is to be expected given the number of complexity of the tests.

The table below provides an overview of corrections, changes and problems found to date in the new standard. This table was compiled during the real tests against new standard.

One major change worth noting is that requirements for ECG interpretation (the old clause 50.102 in IEC 60601-2-51) have been completely removed from the standard. There is no explanation for this, however the change is of interest for the CB scheme since it is now possible to objectively test compliance with all performance tests.

Table: List of changes, corrections and problems in IEC 60601-2-25:2011
(compared to IEC 60601-2-25:1993/A1:1999 + IEC 60601-2-51:2003)

Clause Subject Type Content
201.1.1 Scope Change

The scope statement has been reworded, so for unusual cases it should be checked carefully.

There has been a common mistake that IEC 60601-2-25/IEC 60601-2-51 should not be applied to patient monitors, and a similar mistake can also expected for this edition. However, the correct interpretation has always been  that if the patient monitor provides an ECG record intended for diagnostic purposes, then diagnostic standard should also be applied.

This would then depend on the intended purpose statement (and contraindications) associated with the patient monitor. However, manufacturers of patient monitors with 12 lead ECG options, with measurements of amplitudes, durations and intervals or automated interpretations might find it difficult to justify a claim of not being for diagnostic purpose.  

201.5.4 Component values Change For test circuits, resistors are now required to be ±1% (previously 2%)
201.6.2 Classification New The ECG applied part must now by Type CF (previously there was no restriction). Detachable lead wires Change Detachable lead wires must be marked at both ends (identifier and/or colour) Instructions for use Change

Requirements for the operation manual have been substantially modified in the new standard (see standard for details).

Note: it seems that HF surgery got mentioned twice in item 6) and 12), possibly as a result of combining two standards (IEC 60601-2-25 and IEC 60601-2-51) Defibrillator proof tests Change

Due to the size of the clause, it is difficult to fully detect all changes. However, at least the following changes have been found:

  • The test combinations (Table 201.103) now includes 12 lead ECGs (i.e. C1 ~ C6 should also be tested)
  • The energy reduction test is now included (previously not required for diagnostic ECGs)
  • The test with ECG electrodes is now removed

The energy reduction test is a major change: many diagnostic ECGs have no series resistors which helps to limit noise, improve CMRR. To pass the energy reduction test, ECG lead wires should have at least 1k resistors and preferably 10k (as discussed in the technical article on Defibrillator Tests). With this series resistance, the impact of the ECG gel electrodes is reduced, and perhaps this is the reason for making the test with electrodes obsolete. The test result anyhow depended on the type of ECG electrodes, which is often outside the control of the manufacturer, making the test somewhat unrepresentative of the real world. Automated interpretation Change Automated interpretation is now removed from the standard. Note that it is still expected to be covered by regulatory requirements, such as Annex X of the MDD. Automated amplitude measurements Correction

The limits stated in the requirements has now been corrected to match the test method (5% or 40uV).

The reference values for CAL and ANE waveforms have now been included in the standard (Annex HH). The previous edition stated that these values were there, but they were missing.


In the Annex HH reference data, the polarity of some S segment values is wrong (CAL 20500, aVL, aVF , and V3 for all of the ANE waveforms). There may be other errors that get revealed with time. Automated interval measurements (CAL/ANE) Problem

The requirement statement refers to global measurements (with 17 waveforms, up to 119 measurements), however the compliance statement refers to measurements from each lead (for a 12 lead ECG, up to 1428 measurements if all durations/intervals are measured). Not all ECGs provide global measurements, so this really should be clarified.

Because of this it is also unclear about the removal of 4 outliers "for each measurement". If global measurements are used, this would imply that 4 out of the 17 measurements can be removed from the statistical analysis (which seems a lot). However, if lead measurements are used, this implies 4 out of 204 measurements, which is more reasonable. 

201.12.4 General test circuit Correction / change

The test circuit is now correctly and harmonized with IEC 60601-2-27:2011, IEC 60601-2-47 and also ANSI/AAMI EC 13. Previously the 300mVdc offset was placed in parallel with the test signal which meant the impedance of the dc supply appeared in parallel with the 100Ω resistor and reduced the test signal. The dc offset is now placed in series where this problem does not occur.

However, it is noted that for one test the 300mV DC offset is still required to be applied "common mode" using the old circuit.

Also, in the old standard the resistance between RL/N to the test circuit was 100Ω, whereas now it is a 51kΩ//47nF. A conservative interpretation is that all tests should be repeated with the new circuit, given the significant change (although experience indicates the results don't change). Indication of inoperable ECG Problem The standard indicates that the test should be performed with 1V steps, up to 5V. However, the point of saturation normally occurs well below 1V (experience indicates this is from 400 - 950mV). This means it is possible to pass the test, without passing the requirement. The standard should instead require the dc voltage to be increased in steps of 5 or 10mV to ensure that the indication of saturation is provided before the signal amplitude starts to reduce. 
Test of network Change The previous test (application of 2mV and 6mV waveforms to various leads) is now replaced with the CAL and ANE waveform, with a limit of 10%

The above change has interesting points. The first is that one might ask why the test is needed, since the CAL and ANE waveforms have already been tested under (automated amplitude measurements). However, Clause can be done by digital analysis, whereas this test is for the full system including the ECG's hardware. Also, not all ECGs measure all amplitudes. 

It therefore requires the ability to generate CAL and ANE test signals by analogue (with laboratory 1% accuracy) which many laboratories may not have.

That said, the test really does not really seem to test the networks correctly. As in the old standard, the networks are best tested by providing a signal to one lead electrode only, whereas the CAL/ANE waveforms provide the same signal to all leads simultaneously, except RA which is grounded. Although some analysis is required it seems clear that at least part of the lead network cannot be tested by the CAL/ANE waveforms.

Finally, one might ask why there is a 10% limit for the test method, while the requirement statement says 5%. The reason could be that the basic measurement function is 5%, while the lead networks add another 5%, thus providing an overall 10% error. This is a clear relaxation on the previous edition, which seems unnecessary given that modern electronics (and software) easily handles both the measurement and network well below the 5% in the old standard. Input Impedance Correction

The previous version of the standard had an allowable limit of 18% (for reduction with 620k in series), but Table 113 incorrectly had an effective 6% limit. The 6% limit could be met at 0.67Hz, but most ECGs failed at 40Hz (the input impedance changes with frequency).

The new standard now corrected this to a limit of 20%, aligned with IEC 60601-2-27.

The requirement to test with a common mode 300mV to RL has been removed. Required GAIN Change / Problem

The previous standard included a test of a 1mV step to verify the sensitivity (mm/mV), with a limit of 5%. This test and the limit are now removed, which means there is no objective measurement to verify that a 1mV step corresponds to 10mm on the ECG record. This may or may not be deliberate: it opens the possibility that manufacturers may use a gain of "10mm/mV" in a nominal sense only, with the actual printed record being scaled to fit the report or screen. The classic 5mm pink background grid also then also scaled to give the appearance of 10mm/mV, even though the true measurement reveals strange values such as 7mm/mV (on a small screen) or 13mm/mV (on a printed record).

Using the definition, "GAIN" is the "ratio of the amplitude of the output signal to the amplitude of the input signal". The text in refers to the amplitude on the ECG record. Putting these together, it seems the literal interpretation is that 1mV input should be 10mm on the ECG record. Also several tests provide the allowable limits in mm (e.g. CMRR test limit is 10mm), if the outputs are scaled this would make little sense.

But in the absence of any criteria (limit), it is all a bit vague. If scaling is allowed, it should be clearly stated, and limited to a suitable range otherwise it can get confusing (e.g. at "10mm/mV", a 1mV indication should be in the range of 8-14mm. The scaling and reference grid should be accurate to within 5%, although in the digital world, this may be not necessary to test beyond a spot check to detect software bugs. Finally all limits in the standard should be converted to mV or uV as appropriate. CMRR Change

The test is the same except that the DC offset is now included in the CMRR test box, and the RL/N lead electrode is no longer required to be switched (test is harmonized with IEC 60601-2-27). Previously, the standard indicated that the dc offset is not required, because it has been tested elsewhere. Filter affecting clinical interpretation New

The standard now requires the ECG report to include an "indication" that the clinical interpretation may be affected by filter settings (if applicable). However, there is no clear statement about what is an acceptable "indication". It could mean text such as "Warning the interpretation: might not be valid due to the use of filters"; on the other hand it could mean just making sure that the filters used are clearly shown on the record, perhaps adjacent to the interpretation (allowing the user to make thier own conclusion).

What makes the issue more confusing is that some manufacturers might apply the filters only to the printed waveforms, while the interpretation is still performed on the unfiltered data (to ensure that the filters don't mess up to the interpretation), or worse, some kind of mixed situation (e.g. only mains hum filter is allowed for interpretation). Notch filter effect (on ANE20000) Change

The allowable limit for ringing in the ST segment has now been increased from 25uV to 50uV.

Test experience indicates that the impact of notch filters for the waveform ANE 20000 on Leads I, II and III, aVR, aVL, aVF is minimal. However, the very large S amplitude on Leads V2 (1.93mV) and V3 (1.2mV) can cause a large amount of ringing in the ST segment, which is probably the reason for the change in limit.

It is possible that previous tests have been limited to inspection of Lead II with the assumption that the ANE20000 waveform is the same for all leads (a mistake which the author has made in the past). In fact, the test should be done with a full 12 lead ECG simulator, with each lead inspected one by one. If the notch filter is applied in hardware (in part or full), the test should be done in analogue form. Baseline, general Change Many of the baseline tests have now been removed, such as temperature drift, stability, writing speed and trace width, presumably because in the modern electronic / digital world these are not worth the effort to test. Most ECGs use a high pass filter and digital sampling, which means there is no real possibility for baseline drift. Channel crosstalk Change

The previous edition mixed up leads and lead electrodes (for example, putting a signal on RA/R results in a signal on Leads I, II, aVx, and Vx) so the criteria never made any sense. In practice the test needed to be adapted.

Fortunately, this test has now been corrected and updated to give clear direction on where lead electrodes should be connected and also which leads to inspect for crosstalk. The test is the same as in IEC 60601-2-27:2011.


In step c) of the compliance test, the standard says to inspect Leads I, II and III, but this appears to be a "cut and paste" typographical mistake. The correct lead is only Lead I (Leads II, III will have a large signal not related to crosstalk). Similarly, in step d) this should be only Lead III. Steps e), f) and g) are all correct. High frequency response Change

For frequency response, previously all tests A to E were applied, in the new standard only tests (A and E) or (A, B, C and D) are required.

Also the limit for test E has been slightly reduced (made stricter) from -12% to -10%. Low frequency response Change

The allowable slope has been changed from 250uV/s to 300uV/s, perhaps in recognition that a single pole 0.05Hz high pass filter (typically used in many ECGs) could not pass the 250uV/s limit. Theoretical simulations showed that 0.05Hz single pole filter produces a slope of 286uV/s.

Problem Minor mistake in the standard: the requirement statement does not include the limit for the slope of 300uV/s. This is however included in the compliance statement. Linearity and dynamic range Change / problem

The previous test method used a 1mVpp signal, but required the minimum gain. For an ECG with typical minimum gain of 2.5mm/mV, this meant that the test signal was only 2.5mm, which then conflicted with the diagram.

The new standard corrected this, but made the slight mistake of saying "10mV" rather than "10mm". But the test only makes sense if 10mm is used. Time and event markers Change / problem

It appears as if the authors of the standard were getting a bit tired by this stage.

Both editions of the standard fail to provide a test method, and it is not really clear what to do. The compliance statement is effectively "X shall be accurate to within 2% of X", which makes no sense.

In the latest edition, things have got worse, with the reference to test conditions referring to a clause that has no test conditions (

In practice one would expect the time markers to be accurate to within 2% compared to either a reference signal (e.g. 1Hz for time makers of 1s), and/or against the printed grid.

Of course, all of this really has not much impact in the digital world with crystal accuracy of 50ppm (software bugs notwithstanding). Pacemaker tests Change

The previous pacemaker tests (51.109.1 and 51.109.2) have been combined and extensively reworked:

  • The requirement statement has been changed to include pacing pulses of 2mV to 250mV and durations 0.5 to 2.0ms
  • The test circuit for pacemaker has been defined
  • the point of measurement of amplitude after the pulse is changed from 50ms to 120ms (3mm)
  • the test with the triangle pulse (or CAL ECGs) is removed
  • the test method now includes a calibration step (item e)) to ensure the 2mV pulse is accurate
  • there is now no requirement to declare the impact of filters
  • (big point) the test is now clearly required for all electrodes, tested one by one as per Table 201.108

Although the requirement statement refers to 0.1ms, there is no test for this. 

Also, the status of filters is not clear. Most ECGs use hardware or software "blanking" when a pacing pulse is detected, leaving a clean ECG signal for further processing including filters. This means that the filter setting has no impact on how the ECG responds. However, some manufacturers don't use this method, allowing the display to be heavily distorted with the pulse, with the distortion varying greatly depending on the filters used. Ideally, the standard should encourage the former approach, but at least if heavy distortion can occur for some filter settings, this should be declared. 


High Frequency, High Voltage - Measurement Accuracy

This article looks at some of the issues dealing with measurement uncertainty at high frequency found with IEC 60601-2-2 measurements, and the solutions offered by MEDTEQ. It provided in a Q&A format.  

Are oscilloscopes (scopes) and high voltage probes traceable at the frequency associated with ESU measurements?

Almost certainly no, although it is always worth to check specifications and calibration records. Most scopes and HV probes have accuracy specifications which only apply at "low frequency", typically less than 1kHz. Calibration normally follows the specification so only covers this low frequency area. Calibration at both high voltage and high frequency is an extremely difficult area and even the national standards laboratories have limited coverage (e.g. NIST is limited to 100Vrms/1MHz).

Most scopes and probes are designed to prioritise bandwidth and time base accuracy over accuracy in the vertical axis (voltage). They are not designed to provide stable, laboratory accuracy at high frequency, so traceable calibration would not make sense.

Example response shown in the "typical specifications" section of an active high voltage probe (as provided by the manufacturer). Note the visibly different zones at 10kHz, 100kHz and 1MHz indicating different compensation schemes are used. 

But the marking on the scope and probe show 100MHz? 

This is the "3dB bandwidth" which the frequency where the error exceeds 29%. This error is obviously too high for normal laboratory tests and may seem to have little practical meaning. In theory a laboratory could calculate the 1% bandwidth, around 14MHz for a 100MHz probe/scope. However, this assumes a simple, flat first order response which is not true - in order to achieve a wide bandwidth, various forms of adjustable compensation are applied, resulting in different measurements systems at different frequencies. It's not an exact science and most manufacturers target a flatness of around ±0.5dB for each component which is reasonable considering the difficulties. Even so, this is still a fairly high error of around ±10% for the full system (scope + probe), and exceeds the recommendation in IEC 60601-2-2. Also it should be clear that flatness in the passband is rarely part of the declared  or "guaranteed specifications". Traceability is a function of both the points of calibration and equipment specifications, since it is impractical to calibrate equipment under the full range of use. Or to put it another way, if equipment is used outside of the specified range, it should be calibrated at the points of interest, i.e. for IEC 60601-2-2, calibration should be performed at 400kHz.  

A good quality DMM such as the Fluke 8845A will clearly indicate the errors at different frequencies as part of the formal specifications. Scopes and probes don't have these formal specifications, even though labelled for high frequency. 

Does the same issue apply to DMMs (digital multimeters)?

No - good quality DMM manufacturers declare not only the headline accuracy, but also the frequency range which the accuracy is maintained. Within a this range, DMM measurement systems are typically designed to be inherently flat with no frequency compensation. As such, calibration at 50Hz, for example, can be considered representative of 500Hz, 5kHz and 50kHz if these frequencies are in the specified range.   

In contrast, probes and scopes employ various compensation schemes which take over at higher frequencies. In HV probes for example, the measurement system at 50Hz is completely different to the system used at 50kHz. As such, it is not possible to say that measurement at low frequency is representative of higher frequencies.

It is not to say that scopes and probes are bad, it is extremely (incredibly) difficult to provide flat passband for the wide range of voltages and frequencies which users demand. And in many cases 10% is fine . Perhaps the only complaint is the way specifications are written can easily lead a user to assume the low frequency specifications also apply at mid range frequencies in the passband.   

What if the probe compensation adjustment is done? 

Compensation adjustment is import to keep the accuracy in the ±0.5dB (~6%) range. But it is an approximate method, typically performed at 1kHz only and not suitable to establish legal traceability. It is noted that many scopes and probes exhibit different errors at different frequencies. Compensation is also usually capacitance based, which is much more susceptible to temperature, time, frequency and voltage than a resistor based system. Compensation also depends combination of the probe with the particular scope, channel and cable used.  

Are there other issues?

Apart from the basic frequency response, there are a number of other issues which can affect accuracy. Most oscilloscopes are only 8 bit in the first place which is just 256 steps from top to bottom of the screen (a typical 4.5 digit DMM has 40000 steps). Scopes also have 2-3 LSBs of noise. This means for example, on a scope set to 2kV/div (±8kV range), the noise will be around 200V. This alone is 5% of a 4000Vp waveform, which is on top of the bandwidth issues above. From experience, dc offsets in the scope and probe (in particular, active probes) can easily add another 2-3% and are often unstable with time. This makes peak measurements at best a rough indication in the 10-15% range for a typical set up. 

For rms measurements, the scope sample rate and sample length need to be sufficient for an accurate calculation. As a general rule of thumb, you should have at least 10 cycles for a low crest factor waveform, and 20 cycles or more may be needed for high crest factors.  However, too many cycles can slow the sample rate so that information is lost. Some scopes offer "cycle rms" which eliminates the problem, but the algorithm for detecting a "cycle" should be checked as it is possible for the software to be confused by pulse waveforms.  

Why is it so difficult?

The technical issues with accurate rms measurement increase as a function of Vrms²x frequency. Wide bandwidth requires low resistance to minimise the impact of stray capacitance and other effects (e.g. standard 50Ω), but low resistance is not practical at high voltage due to the power and heat (try putting 100Vrms on a 50Ω resistor). Another problem is that main use of scopes is for diagnostic purpose and timing, hence the widespread use of 8 bit resolution which is more than enough for those tasks. As scopes went digital, the temptation obviously exists to add various measurement functions such as peak and rms. But these software functions and the associated measurement systems were never really scrutinised by the industry as to whether they provided reliable measurements with traceable accuracy.   

Why can MEDTEQ offer accurate, traceable measurement?

The MEDTEQ equipment tackles a relatively small range up to 1MHz and up to 1200Vrms with analogue based designs (compared to 100MHz/20kVrms offered by probes/scopes). This smaller area is challenging but not impossible.

A first target was to develop a reliable 1000:1 divider for use in the MEDTEQ HFIT (High Frequency Insulation Tester). After many years of experimenting with chains of SMD resistors, it was finally established that that the upper limit for a resistive divider without compensation was 300Vrms for 0.1% error at 500kHz (11MHz 3dB bandwidth). Beyond this, the competing constraints of power dissipation and bandwidth cannot be met. This was based on literature, experiments to determine stray capacitance for mounted SMD parts, modelling and tests.

To handle the higher voltages up to 7200Vp/1200Vrms as associated with the HFIT 7.0, a chain of "mica" capacitors are used. In general, capacitors are unreliable in measurement systems, being susceptible to voltage, frequency, temperature and time. However, mica capacitors are known for their stability under a wide range of conditions. Experience with this design, including units returned for periodic calibration have given confidence in this solution better than 0.5% from 320-460kHz (the range of HFIT use).    

To calibrate the divider, specially developed HF meters have been used . It is planned to release a range of meters around mid-2017 under the name "HFVM" (high frequency voltmeter). To calibrate the divider, two HFVMs are used, one with a range of 200V, and a second meter with 200mV. A "home made" high frequency amplifier is driven by a digital function generator is used to provide around 150Vrms at the test frequencies of 320kHz/400kHz/460kHz. An oscilloscope monitors the test waveform for harmonic distortion and confirm it is <0.3%.  

Although the current HFIT 7.0 contains only 1000:1 divider, the HFIT 8.0 (under preliminary release) includes also internal metering using the HFVM design. The preliminary release versions were validated and performed well within the 2% design specification when compared against external reference methods, over a wide range of voltages, crest factors.    

How are the HFVMs designed? 

Inside the HFVM, rms voltage is derived from the "explicit" method, which separates the measurement into three stages: square -> mean -> square root. This is known to have a relatively wide bandwidth, and the core device for squaring the waveform has a 40MHz bandwidth. The explicit method has a complication in the wide dynamic range in output of the square stage. Fortunately this complication is unrelated to the frequency response, and so could be investigated and solved at low frequency. In contrast, modern DMMs use an "implicit" (feedback) rms/dc solution which does not suffer the wide dynamic range, but has limited frequency response.  

For peak detection, MEDTEQ has invented a new method which has the equivalent accuracy of a 13 bit scope running at 100MHz, but without the complication. It is a simple method which can be thought of as a hybrid between hardware and software, with an algorithm that searches for the peak, rather than measuring it. A key benefit of this approach is that it does not use any diodes as are common in peak detection, as diodes are difficult characterise at high frequency with parameters such as diode reverse recovery time, leakage and capacitance influencing the result.  

How is rms traceability provided?

The HFVMs are calibrated against a Fluke 8845A 6.5 digit meter, itself calibrated by JQA. They are tested at a "comfortable" frequency such as 1kHz or 10kHz where the Fluke has high accuracy specifications and there are no questions about traceability.

To verify the bandwidth, the HFVM is validated against thermal methods, using MEDTEQ's HBTS which has 0.01°C resolution, and can be set up to detect errors as small as 0.1% deviation from 50Hz to 500kHz. A home made device called "HFCAL" provides a stabilised output within 0.1% from 5kHz to 500kHz (the HFCAL itself is not calibrated as the stability is confirmed by thermal methods). A typical set up uses a 50.00Vrms which is connected to the Fluke, HFIT, and an a resistor designed to have around 20°C rise. The resistor is kept in a specially designed thermal block which can detect rms voltage changes of 0.1% or better as verified at low frequency, again using the Fluke as the traceable reference. The Fluke is then removed, and the frequency adjusted to 10, 20, 50, 100, 300, 400 and 500kHz. Via the temperature observed by the HBTS, the rms output of the HFCAL can be monitored as being stable within 0.2%. The indicated values of the HFVM is also observed and confirmed to be within 50.00Vrms ±0.1%.    

Due to the complexity of working in high frequency, the HFVM is also designed to be inherently accurate (for both peak and rms), which means they works "as assembled" without any adjustments. All potentially limiting factors such as resistor tolerances, op-amp slew rate, stray parameters and the like are designed to be negligible. The design bandwidth is >11MHz, the point calculated to have 0.1% error at 500kHz. No frequency compensation is applied. This focus on an inherently accurate design is considered important as ensures the thermal validation above is genuinely independent. It would not be acceptable if, for example, the HFVM included compensation at high frequency that was first adjusted using a thermal method, and later verified by a similar method.

The thermal experiments above have also been repeated many times in both ad-hoc and formal settings, and the HFVM itself has undergone several iterations. Despite different configurations, components, resistors the design has given a reliable 0.2% bandwidth of 500kHz, which is far more accurate than required for IEC 60601-2-2 testing.  

Is MEDTEQ traceability legal?

Yes and no. Traceability itself is provided as described above. However, a medical device manufacturer would be using MEDTEQ as a subcontractor (or supplier) for purpose of the regulations such as the medical device directive. This is fine as long as some kind of assessment is performed to confirm that MEDTEQ is an appropriate supplier. Recently, HFIT calibration/shipping reports are provided with an explanation how traceability is provided. However, in the future it is planned to provide a detailed validation report, similar to what might be expected for software validation of test equipment.

What about laboratory ISO 17025 traceability with accreditation?

No. In addition to traceability itself, ISO 17025 requires quality assurance, management systems, insurance and audits by an accreditation agency. MEDTEQ cannot offer this. Calibration agencies are being contacted for support to develop a special program for the high frequency, high voltage area.

In the background it has to be kept in mind that no virtually no accredited agencies work in the high voltage/high frequency region. As such, there may be two options available:

  1. Refer to the calibration of the high voltage probes and scopes. This is the current practice and accepted for the time being. But keep in mind the potential for real world errors especially in poorly adjusted high voltage probes; equipment settings and other issues mentioned above. Use the MEDTEQ devices (e.g. HFIT divider) as cross check and investigate the errors.

  2. Discuss with the lab QA department/accreditation agencies for special allowance until such time as traceable calibration is provided by ISO 17025 accredited agencies. In pure regulations and accreditation only traceability is required. There will always be some unusual situations where accredited 3rd party ISO 17025 calibration simply does not exist. While internal procedures or accreditation agencies may ISO 17025 calibration, exceptions to the rule should be allowed as long as it is properly documented (e.g. basis for traceability).    

IEC 60601-2-2 Dielectric heating

This article has been transferred from the original MEDTEQ website with minor editorial update.


The mechanism of breakdown at high frequency is different to normal mains frequency dielectric strength tests - it can be thermal, rather than basic ripping apart of electrons from atoms. Also, for mains frequency tests, there tends to be a large margin between the test requirement and what the insulation can really handle, meaning that errors in the test method are not always critical. In contrast, the margin for HF insulation can be slight, and the test method can greatly affect the test result.

HF burns, in part due to insulation failure, continue to be a major area of litigation. Of particular concern is the high fatality rate associated with unintentional internal burns which may go unnoticed.

For those involved in designing or testing HF insulation, it is absolutely critical to have a good understanding of the theory behind HF insulation and what causes breakdown. This article looks into the detail of one of those mechanisms: thermal effects. 


All insulating materials behave like capacitors. With an ac voltage applied, some current will flow. At 230V 50/60Hz, this amount of current is very small, in the order of 20uA between conductors in a 2m length of mains cable. But at 300-400kHz, the current is nearly 10,000 times higher, easily reaching in the order of 10mA at 500Vrms, for just short 10cm of cable.  

All insulating materials will heat up due to the ac electric field. This is called dielectric heating or dipole heating. One way to think of this is to consider the heating to be due to the friction of molecules moving in the electric field. Microwave ovens use this property to heat food, and dielectric heating is used also in industrial applications such as welding plastics. These applications make use of high frequency, usually in the MHz or GHz range.

At 50-60Hz the amount of heating is so small it amounts to a fraction of a fraction of a degree. But again at 300-400kHz the amount of heating can be enough to melt the insulation.

The temperature rise caused by dielectric heating can be estimated from:

dT = 2π V2 f ε0εr d t / H D d2      (K or °C)

Although this is a rather complicated looking formulae, it is mostly made up of material specific parameters that can be found with some research (more details on this are provided below). To get some feel for what this means, let's put this in a table where voltage and thickness are varied, for a frequency of 400kHz, showing two common materials, PVC and Teflon:

Predicted insulation temperature rise @ 400kHz


Voltage PVC Insulation Thickness (mm)
(Vrms) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
  Temperature rise (K)
200 0.7 1.1 1.9 4.3 17.3
400 2.8 4.3 7.7 17.3 69.3
600 6.2 9.7 17.3 39.0 156.0
800 11.1 17.3 30.8 69.3 277.3
1000 17.3 27.1 48.1 108.3 433.3
1200 25.0 39.0 69.3 156.0 623.9


 Table #1: Because of a high dissipation factor (d = 0.016), PVC can melt at thicknesses commonly found in insulation. 
For broad HF surgical applications, a thickness of at least 0.8mm is recommended 


Voltage Teflon Insulation Thickness (mm)
(Vrms) 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.05 0.03
  Temperature rise (K)
200 0.0 0.1 0.5 2.1 5.9
400 0.1 0.2 2.1 8.5 23.7
600 0.2 0.5 4.8 19.2 53.4
800 0.3 0.9 8.5 34.2 94.9
1000 0.5 1.5 13.3 53.4 148.3
1200 0.8 2.1 19.2 76.9 213.5


 Table #2: Teflon has a far lower dissipation factor (less than 0.0002), so even 0.1mm is enough for broad HF surgical applications. 
However, because of Teflon's superior qualities and high cost, insulation thickness is often reduced to around the 0.1mm region

For PVC insulation, these predicted values match well with experimental tests, where a small gauge thermocouple was used as the negative electrode and the temperature monitored during and after the test. For insulation with thickness varying between 0.3mm and 0.5mm, temperatures of over 80°C were recorded at voltages of 900Vrms 300kHz, and increasing the voltage to 1100Vrms resulted in complete breakdown.

Practical testing

As the formulae indicates, the temperature rise is a function of voltage squared, and an inverse function of thickness squared. This means for example, if the voltage is doubled, or the thickness is halved, the temperature rise quadruples. Even smaller variations of 10-20% can have a big impact on the test result due the squared relation.

Because insulation thickness varies considerably in normal wiring, it is possible that one sample may pass while another may not. Although IEC 60601-2-2 and IEC 60601-2-18 do not require multiple samples to be tested, good design practice would dictate enough samples to provide confidence, which in turn depends on the margin. For example, if your rated voltage is only 400Vrms, and your thickness is 0.8+/- 0.2mm, then high margin means the test is only a formality. On the other hand, if your rating is 1200Vrms, and the thickess if 0.8+/-0.2mm, perhaps 10 samples would be reasonable.

Test labs need to take care that the applied voltage is accurate and stable, which is not an easy task. Most testing is performed using HF surgical equipment as the source, however, these often do not have a stable output. Also, the measurement of voltage at HF is an area not well understood. In general, passive HV probes (such as 1000:1 probes) should not be used, since at 400kHz these probes operate in a capacitive region in which calibration is no longer valid (see here for more discussion) and large errors are common. Specially selected active probes or custom made dividers which have been validated at 400kHz (or the frequency of interest) are recommended.   

Perhaps the biggest impact to the test result is heat sinking. The above formulae for temperature rise assumes that all the heat produced cannot escape. However, the test methods described in IEC 60601-2-2 and IEC 60601-2-18 do not require the test sample to be thermally insulated. This means, some or most of the heat will be drawn away by the metal conductors on either side of the insulation, by normal convection cooling if the sample is tested in an open environment, or by the liquid if the sample immersed in fluid or wrapped in a saline soaked cloth.  

This heat sinking varies greatly with the test set up. The test in IEC 60601-2-2 (wire wrap test) is perhaps the most severe, but even something as simple as the test orientation (horizontal or vertical) is enough to substantially affect the test result.

Because of these three factors (variations in insulation thickness, applied voltage, heatsinking) bench testing of HF insulation should only be relied on as a back up to design calculations. Test labs should ask the manufacturer for the material properties, and then make a calculation whether the material is thermally stable at the rated voltage and frequency. 

The above formulea is again repeated here, and the following table provides more details on the parameters needed to estimate temperature rise. The temperature rise should be combined with ambient (maybe 35°C for the human body) and then compared to the insulation's temperature limit.


dT = 2π V2 f ε0εr d t / H D d2      (K or °C)



Symbol  Parameter Units Typical value Notes
V Test voltage Vrms 600 - 1200Vrms

Depends on rating and test standard. Note that ratings with high peak or peak to peak values may still have moderate rms voltages. Under IEC 60601-2-2, a rating of 6000Vp would require a test with 1200Vrms. 

f Test frequency  Hz 300-400kHz Depends on rating. Monopolar HF surgical equipment is usually less than 400kHz1 
ε0 Free space permittivity  F/m 8.85 x 10-12 Constant
εr Relative permittivity  unit less ~2 Does not vary much with materials
δ Dissipation factor unit less 0.0001 ~ 0.02 Most important factor, varies greatly with material. Use the 1MHz figures (not 1kHz)
t Test time s 30s IEC 60601-2-2 and IEC 60601-2-18 both specify 30s
H Specific heat J/gK 0.8 ~ 1 Does not vary much with materials
D Density  g/cm3 1.4 ~ 2 Does not vary much with materials
d Insulation thickness mm 0.1 ~ 1 Based on material specification. Use minimum value


 1Dielectric heating also occurs in bipolar applications, but due to the significantly lower voltage, the effect is much less significant.